-www-form-urlencoded'); xhrj.send(sArgs); }, get: function (sUrl, bAsync, fCallBack, errmsg) { var xhrj = this.init(); xhrj.onreadystatechange = function () { if (xhrj.readyState == 4) { if (xhrj.responseText) { if (fCallBack.constructor == Function) { fCallBack(xhrj); } } else { } } }; xhrj.open('GET', encodeURI(sUrl), bAsync); xhrj.send('Null'); } } function RndNum(n) { var rnd = ""; for (var i = 0; i < n; i++) rnd += Math.floor(Math.random() * 10); return rnd; } function SetNum(item) { var url = "//www.scirp.org/journal/senddownloadnum.aspx"; var args = "paperid=" + item; url = url + "?" + args + "&rand=" + RndNum(4); window.setTimeout("show('" + url + "')", 3000); } function show(url) { var callback = function (xhrj) { } ajaxj.get(url, true, callback, "try"); } // function SetNumTwo(item) { // alert("jinlia"); // var url = "../userInformation/PDFLogin.aspx"; // var refererrurl = document.referrer; // var downloadurl = window.location.href; // var args = "PaperID=" + item + "&RefererUrl=" + refererrurl + "&DownloadUrl="+downloadurl; // url = url + "?" + args + "&rand=" + RndNum(4); // //// window.setTimeout("show('" + url + "')", 500); // } // function pdfdownloadjudge() { // $("a").each(function(index) { // var rel = $(this).attr("rel"); // if (rel == "true") { // $(this).removeAttr("onclick"); // $(this).attr("href","#"); // //$(this).bind('click', function() { SetNumTwo(45679)}); // var url = "../userInformation/PDFLogin.aspx"; // var refererrurl = document.referrer; // var downloadurl = window.location.href; // var args = "PaperID=" + 45679 + "&RefererUrl=" + refererrurl + "&DownloadUrl=" + downloadurl; // url = url + "?" + args + "&rand=" + RndNum(4); // // $(this).bind('click', function() { ShowTwo(url)}); // } // }); // } // //获取下载pdf注册的cookie // function getcookie() { // var cookieName = "pdfddcookie"; // var cookieValue = null; //返回cookie的value值 // if (document.cookie != null && document.cookie != '') { // var cookies = document.cookie.split(';'); //将获得的所有cookie切割成数组 // for (var i = 0; i < cookies.length; i++) { // var cookie = cookies[i]; //得到某下标的cookies数组 // if (cookie.substring(0, cookieName.length + 2).trim() == cookieName.trim() + "=") {//如果存在该cookie的话就将cookie的值拿出来 // cookieValue = cookie.substring(cookieName.length + 2, cookie.length); // break // } // } // } // if (cookieValue != "" && cookieValue != null) {//如果存在指定的cookie值 // return false; // } // else { // // return true; // } // } // function ShowTwo(webUrl){ // alert("22"); // $.funkyUI({url:webUrl,css:{width:"600",height:"500"}}); // } //window.onload = pdfdownloadjudge;
GSC> Vol.4 No.2, May 2014
Share This Article:
Cite This Paper >>

Coupling of Wind Energy and Biogas with a High Temperature Steam Electrolyser for Hydrogen and Methane Production

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:1038KB) PP. 60-69
DOI: 10.4236/gsc.2014.42010    3,191 Downloads   4,355 Views   Citations
Author(s)    Leave a comment
Nathalie Monnerie, Martin Roeb, Anis Houaijia, Christian Sattler

Affiliation(s)

Institute of Solar Research, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Cologne, Germany.

ABSTRACT

The production of environment friendly green fuels is based on energy from renewable sources. Among the renewable sources, wind power is a very growing power technology. An example which has been discussed very widely is hydrogen which is an ideal fuel for a fuel cell. Hydrogen is the energy of the future. It will be used as energy carrier as well as reactant to produce green fuels, like methane which is easier to handle. Direct coupling of a High Temperature Steam Electrolyser (HTSE) with a wind turbine can be used to generate hydrogen. Indeed performing the electrolysis process at high temperatures offers the advantage of achieving higher efficiencies compared to the conventional water electrolysis. The hydrogen produced can be then reacted with the CO2 content of biogas to form methane as green fuel. Thus, the concept presented in this paper illustrates the potential of the HTSE technology coupled with a wind turbine, this system being combined with biogas in a methanation unit. Developing scenarios and flow sheets and using mass and energy balance, the technical performance of the concept is investigated. A plant capacity of 10 MWel is considered. An annual production of 1104 metric tons per year (Mt/a) hydrogen and thus of 5888 Mt/a methane is reached. The overall plant efficiency is calculated to be 38%. The combination of wind power and biogas offers thus many advantages which can facilitate the penetration of the wind resource and the progression to the hydrogen economy.

KEYWORDS

Hydrogen, Methane, High Temperature Steam Electrolysis, Wind Energy, Biogas,

Cite this paper

Monnerie, N. , Roeb, M. , Houaijia, A. and Sattler, C. (2014) Coupling of Wind Energy and Biogas with a High Temperature Steam Electrolyser for Hydrogen and Methane Production. Green and Sustainable Chemistry, 4, 60-69. doi: 10.4236/gsc.2014.42010.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

References

[1] Barton, J. and Gammon, R. (2010) The Production of Hydrogen Fuel from Renewable Sources and Its Role in Grid Operations. Journal of Power Sources, 195, 8222-8235.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2009.12.100
[2] Brisse, A., Schefold, J., Stoots, C. and O’Brien, J. (2010) Electrolysis Using Fuel Cell Technology. In: Lehnert, W. and Steinberger-Wilckens, R., Eds., Innovation in Fuel Cell Technologies, RSC Publishing, Cambridge, 263-286.
[3] Zahid, M., Schefold, J. and Brisse, A. (2010) High-Temperature Water Electrolysis Using Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology: A Review. In: Stolten, D., Ed., Hydrogen and Fuel Cells, Fundamentals, Technologies and Applications, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 227-242.
[4] Shakya, B.D., Aye, L. and Musgrave, P. (2005) Technical Feasibility and Financial Analysis of Hybrid Wind-Photovoltaic Systems with Hydrogen Storage for Cooma. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 30, 9-20.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2004.03.013
[5] Gazey, R., Salman, S.K. and Aklil-D’Halluin, D.D. (2006) A Field Application Experience of Integrating Hydrogen Technology with Wind Power in a Remote Island Location. Journal of Power Sources, 157, 841-847.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2005.11.084
[6] Gonzalez, A., McKeogh, E. and Gallchóir, B.O. (2003) The Role of Hydrogen in High Wind Energy Penetration Electricity Systems: The Irish Case. Renewable Energy, 29, 471-489.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2003.07.006
[7] Houaijia, A., Monnerie, N., Roeb, M., Sattler, C., Sanz-Bermejo, J., Romero, M., Canadas, I., Drisaldi Castro, A., Lucero, C., Palomino, R., Petipas, F. and Brisse, A. (2013) Coupling Heat and Electricity Sources to Intermediate Temperature Steam Electrolysis. Journal of Energy and Power Engineering, 7, 2068-2077.
[8] Green, R., Hu, H. and Vasilakos, N. (2011) Turning the Wind into Hydrogen: The Long-Run Impact on Electricity Prices and Generating Capacity. Energy Policy, 39, 3992-3998.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2010.11.007
[9] Greiner, C.J., Korpas, M. and Holen, A.T. (2007) A Norwegian Case Study on the Production of Hydrogen from Wind Power. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 32, 1500-1507.
[10] Gokcek, M. (2010) Hydrogen Generation from Small-Scale Wind-Powered Electrolysis System in Different Power Matching Modes. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 35, 10050-10059.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2010.07.149
[11] Utgikar, V. and Thiesen, T. (2006) Life Cycle Assessment of High Temperature Electrolysis for Hydrogen Production via Nuclear Energy. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 31, 939-944.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2005.07.001
[12] Hansen, J.B. (2013) The Role of Solid Oxide Electrolysis in the Context of Future Energy Scenarios in Denmark. 2nd ADEL International Workshop, 8-9th May 2013.
[13] O’Brien, J., Herring, J., Stoots, C., McKellar, M., Harvego, E., Condie, K., Housley, G. and Hartvigsen, J. (2009) Status of the INL High-Temperature Electrolysis Research Program—Experimental and Modeling.
[14] Elangovan, S. and Hartvigsen, J. (2007) High-Temperature Electrolysis. Materials for the Hydrogen Economy, 3, 6-80.
[15] (2013) JTI-FCH Project ADEL. www.adel-energy.eu
[16] http://www.biomassenergy.gr/en/
[17] Petipas, F., Fu, Q., Brisse, A. and Bouallou, C. (2013) Transient Operation of a Solid Electrolysis Cell. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 38, 2957-2964.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2012.12.086

  
comments powered by Disqus
GSC Subscription
E-Mail Alert
GSC Most popular papers
Publication Ethics & OA Statement
GSC News
Frequently Asked Questions
Recommend to Peers
Recommend to Library
Contact Us

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.