Injury-Related Profiles among School-Aged Children in Cameroon: Analysis Based on the “First Survey—Health Young People”


Aims: Establish profiles of young “at risk” of injuries, first, on an overall point of view and, secondly, for some types of injuries (sport, home, road traffic, school and work injuries). Methods: We have taken nearly 50 variables into consideration: 17 variables for construction of the socioeconomic status, 9 variables for the investigation of symptoms, 11 concerning drugs, 5 for healthy habits, 3 for investigating the violence behavior, 4 concerning the school, 3 for subjective health and finally 3 for social network. We have used the principal component analysis, the multiple correspondence analysis and the weighted-frequency score for reducing the number of them. After these reductions, 15 variables were available for analyses. The relationship between injuries and investigated factors was assessed using the Pearson’s chi-square test. We also calculated odds ratio (OR) with their 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) to estimate the strengths of the associations. To further assess these relationships but also for taking into account the potentials confounding effects of some variables, logistic regression model and multinomial logistic regression model were applied. Results: The whole injury prevalence was equal to 45.6% and among the injured, the proportion of the several types was equal to 33.8% for sport injuries, 32.2% for home injuries, 16.6% for traffic injuries, 11.6% for school injuries and 5.7% for work injuries. We can say that, in light of the variables studied, the “at risk” profile for having reported an injury is being a boy, being younger, having drug experiences, with the violent profile, and declaring several symptoms. There are no consistent and marked deviations in this study from the findings obtained in previous studies. Conclusion: Analyzing injuries in general is interesting but for preventing them it is important to know in which activities children and students are engaged when they are injured.

Share and Cite:

Senterre, C. , Levêque, A. , Piette, D. and Dramaix, M. (2014) Injury-Related Profiles among School-Aged Children in Cameroon: Analysis Based on the “First Survey—Health Young People”. Open Journal of Epidemiology, 4, 89-114. doi: 10.4236/ojepi.2014.42015.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Otieno, T., Woodfield, J.C., Bird, P. and Hill, A.G. (2004) Trauma in Rural Kenya. Injury, 35, 1228-1233.
[2] Juillard, C., Mballa, G.A.E., Ndongo, C.B., Stevens, K. and Hyder, A. (2011) Patterns of Injury and Violence in Yaoundé Cameroon: An Analysis of Hospital Data. World Journal of Surgery, 35, 1-8.
[3] Howe, L.D., Huttly, R.A. and Abramsky, T. (2006) Risk Factors for Injuries in Young Children in Four Developing Countries: The Young Lives Study. Tropical Medicine & International Health, 11, 1557-1566.
[4] Nsekero, E., Curationis, M. and Brysiewicz, P. (2010) Injury Surveillance in a Central Hospital in Kigali, Rwanda. Journal of Emergency Nursing, 36, 212-216.
[5] Osifo, O.D., Iribhogbe, P.E. and Ugiagbe, E.E. (2012) Epidemiology and Pattern of Paediatric and Adolescent Trauma Deaths in a Level 1 Trauma Center in Benin City, Nigeria. Injury, 43, 1861-1864.
[6] Mefire, A.C., Mballa, G.A.E., Kenfack, M.A., Juillard, C. and Stevens, K. (2013) Hospital-Based Injury Data from Level III Institution in Cameroon: Retrospective Analysis of the Present Registration System. Injury, 44, 139-143.
[7] Muula, A., Siziya, S. and Rudatsikira, E. (2011) Prevalence and Socio-Demographic Correlates for Serious Injury among Adolescents Particpating in the Djibouti 2007 Global School-Based Health Survey. BMC Research Notes, 4, 372.
[8] Zwi, K.J., Zwi, A.B., Smettanikov, E., Soderlund, N. and Logan, S. (1995) Patterns of Injury in Children and Adolescents Presenting to a South African Township Health Center. Injury Prevention, 1, 26-30.
[9] Kobusingye, O.C. and Lett, R.R. (2000) Hospital-Based Trauma Registries in Uganda. Journal of Trauma-Injury Infection & Critical Care, 48, 498-502.
[10] Kanchan, T., Menezes, R.G. and Monteiro, F.N.P. (2009) Fatal Unintentional Injuries among Young Children—A Hospital Based Retrospective Analysis. Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, 16, 307-311.
[11] Patton, G.C., Coffey, C., Sawyer, S.M., Viner, R.M., Haller, R.M., Bose, K., Vos, T., Ferguson, J. and Mathers, C. (2009) Global Patterns of Mortality in Young People: A Systematic Analysis of Population Health Data. Lancet, 374, 881-892.
[12] Williams, J.M., Currie, C., Wright, P., Elton, R.A. and Beattie, T.F. (1997) Socioeconomic Status and Adolescent Injuries. Social Science & Medicine, 44, 1881-1891.
[13] Peltzer, K. (2008) Injury and Social Determinants among In-School Adolescents in Six African Countries. Injury Prevention, 14, 381-388.
[14] Flisher, A.J., Ward, C.L., Liang, H., Onya, H., Mlisa, N., Terblanche, S., Bhana, A., Parry, C.D. and Lombard, C.J (2006) Injury-Related Behaviour among South African High-School Students at Six Sites. South African Medical Journal, 96, 825-830.
[15] World Health Organization and United Nations Children’s Fund (2008) World Report on Child Injury Prevention. The World Health Organization, Geneva.
[16] Li, G. and Baker, S.P. (2012) Injury Research. Theories, Methods and Approaches. Springer, New York.
[17] World Health Organization (2004) Guidelines for Conducting Community Surveys on Injuries and Violence. The World Health Organization, Geneva
[18] Pickett, W., Schmid, H., Boyce, W.F., Simpson, K., Scheidt, P.C., Peter, C., Mazur, J., Molcho, M., King, M.A., Godeau, E., Overpeck, M., Aszmann, A., Szabo, M. and Harel, Y. (2002) Multiple Risk Behavior and Injury: An International Analysis of Young People. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 156, 786-793.
[19] Piette, D., Houioux, G., De Smet, P. and Mbena, C. (2010) Démarche participative d'une étude de la santé des jeunes d'age scolaire au Cameroun. IUHPE World Conference on Health Promotion and Education, Geneva.
[20] Health Behavior in School-Aged Children.
[21] Institut National de la Statistique and ORC Macro (2004) Enquête Démographique et de Santé du Cameroun 2004. INS et ORC Macro, Calverton.
[22] Filmer, D. and Pritchette, L. (2001) Estimating Wealth Effects without Expenditures Data—Or Tears: An Application to Educational Enrollments in States of India. Demography, 38, 115-132.
[23] Jackson, J. (2003) A User’s Guide to Principal Components. Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics, Wiley, New York.
[24] Everitt, B. and Dunn, G. (2001) Applied Multivariate Data Analysis. 2nd Edition, Wiley, London.
[25] Tabachnick, B. and Fidell, L. (2001) Using Multivariate Statistics. 4th Edition, Allyn & Bacon, Boston.
[26] Hosmer, D.W. and Lemeshow, S. (2000) Applied Logistic Regression. 2nd Edition, Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics, Wiley, New York.
[27] Fagerland, M.W. and Hosmer, D.W. (2012) A Generalized Hosmer-Lemeshow Goodness-of-Fit Test for Multinomial Logistic Regression Models. Stata Journal, 12, 447-453.
[28] Little, R. and Rubin, D. (1987) Statistical Analysis with Missing Data. Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics, Wiley, New York.
[29] Graham, J.W. (2012) Missing Data: Analysis and Design. Statistics for Social and Behavioral Sciences, Springer, New York.
[30] Molcho, M., Harel, Y., Pickett, W., Scheidt, P.C., Mazur, J., Overpeck, M.D. and on behalf of the HBSC Violence and Injury Writing Group (2006) The Epidemiology of Non-Fatal Injuries among 11-, 13- and 15-Year Old Youth in 11 Countries: Findings from the 1998 WHO-HBSC cross National Survey. International Journal of Injury Control and Safety, 13, 205-211.
[31] Peltzer, K. and Pengpid, S. (2012) Injury and Social Correlates among In-School Adolescents in Four Southeast Asian Countries. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 9, 2851-2862.
[32] Peltzer, K. (2009) Prevalence and Social Correlates of Injury among In-School Adolescents in Botswana. African Safety promotion: A Journal of Injury & Violence Prevention, 7, 1-13.
[33] Chen, G., Smith, G.A., Deng, S., Chen, D., Kelleher, K. and Xiang, H. (2005) Psychological Symptoms and Nonfatal Unintentional Injuries among Chinese Adolescents: A Prospective Study. Journal of Adolescent Health, 37, 460-466.
[34] Currie, C.E., Willimas, J.M., Wright, P., Beattie, T. and Harel, Y. (1996) Incidence and Distribution of Injury among Schoolchildren Aged 11-15. Injury Prevention, 2, 21-25.
[35] Wilson, M., Hasselberg, M., Kigwangalla, H., Boursiquot, B. and Laflamme, L. (2013) The Association between Family Health Status and Child Injury in a Sample of African Children. International Journal of Injury Control and Safety, 20, 91-93.
[36] Morrongiello, B.A. and Lasenby-Lessard, J. (2007) Psychological Determinants of Risk Taking by Children: An Integrative Model and Implications for Interventions. Injury Prevention, 13, 20-25.
[37] Moshiro, C., Heuch, I., Astrom, A.N., Setel, P., Hemed, Y. and Kvale, G. (2005) Injury Morbidity in an Urban and a Rural Area in Tanzania: An Epidemiological Survey. BMC Public Health, 5, 11.
[38] Celis, A., Gomez, Z., Martinez-Sotomayor, A., Arcila, L. and Villasenor, M. (2003) Family Characteristics and Pedestrian Injury Risk in Mexican Children. Injury Prevention, 9, 58-61.
[39] Pattussi, M.P., Lalloo, R., Bassani, D.G. and Olinto, M.T. (2008) The Role of Psychosocial, Behavioural and Emotional Factors on Self-Reported Major Injuries in Brazilian Adolescents: A Case-Control Study. Injury, 39, 561-569.
[40] Starkuviene, S. and Zarborskis, A. (2005) Links between Accidents and Lifestyle Factors among Lithuanian Schoolchildren. Medicina (Kaunas), 41, 73-80.
[41] Pickett, W., Garner, M.J., Boyce, W.F. and King, M.A. (2002) Gradients in Risk for Youth Injury Associated with Multiple-Risk Behaviours: A Study of 11,329 Canadian Adolescents. Social Science & Medicine, 55, 1055-1068.
[42] Argan, P., Winn, D., Anderson, C. and Del Valle, C. (1998) Family, Social and Cultural Factors in Pedestrian Injuries among Hispanic Children. Injury Prevention, 4, 188-193.
[43] Pickett, W., Dostaler, S., Craig, W., Janssen, I., Simpson, K., Shelley, S.D. and Boyce, W.F. (2006) Associations between Risk Behavior and Injury and the Protective Roles of Social Environments: An Analysis of 7235 Canadian School Children. Injury Prevention, 12, 87-92.
[44] Zhou, L., Chen, D. and Dong, G. (2013) Characteristics and Related Factors of Nonfatal Injuries among Adolescents in Shenzhen City of China. BMC Public Health, 13, 392.
[45] Sindelar, H.A., Barnett, N.P. and Spirito, A. (2004) Adolescent Alcohol Use and Injury. A Summary and Critical Review of the Literature. Minderva Pediatrica, 53, 291-309.
[46] Lowry, R., Powell, K.E., Kann, L., Collins, J.L. and Kolbe, L.J. (1998) Weapon-Carrying, Physical Fighting, and Fight-Related Injury among U.S. Adolescents. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 14, 122-129.
[47] Hammig, B.J., Dahlberg, L.L. and Swahn, M.H. (2001) Predictors of Injury from Fighting among Adolescent Males. Injury Prevention, 7, 312-315.
[48] Pickett, W., Craig, W., Harel, Y., Cunningham, J., Simpson, K., Molcho, M., Mazur, J., Dostaler, S., Overpeck, M.D., Currie, C.E. and on behalf of the HBSC Violence and Injuries Writing Group. (2005) Cross-National Study of Fighting and Weapon Carrying as Determinants of Adolescent Injury. Pediatrics, 116, e855-e863.
[49] Muula, A., Herring, P., Siziya, S. and Rudatsikira E. (2009) Bullying Victimization and Physical Fighting among Venezuelan Adolescents in Barinas: Results from the Global School-Based Health Survey 2003. Italian Journal of Pediatrics, 35, 38.
[50] Kubwalo, H.W., Muula, A.S., Siziya, S., Pasupulati, S. and Rudatsikira, E. (2013) Prevalence and Correlates of Being Bullied among In-School Adolescents in Malawi: Results from the 2009 Global School-Based Health Survey. Malawi Medical Journal, 25, 12-14.
[51] Bailey, S.L., Flewelling, R.L. and Rosenbaum, D.P. (1997) Characteristics of Students Who Bring Weapons to School. Journal of Adolescent Health, 20, 261-270.
[52] Pengpid, S. and Peltzer, K. (2013) Bullying and Its Associated Factors among School-Aged Adolescents in Thailand. Scientific World Journal, 2013, Article ID 254083.
[53] Rudatsikira, E., Siziya, S., Kazembe, L.N. and Muula, A.S. (2007) Prevalence and Associated Factors of Physical Fighting among School-Going Adolescents in Namibia. Annals of General Psychiatry, 6, 18.
[54] Vital, E., Oliveira, R., do Céu Machado, M. and de Matos, M.G. (2011) Injuries and Risk-Taking Behaviours in Portuguese Adolescents: Highlights from the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Survey. Journal of Safety Research, 42, 327-331.
[55] Siziya, S., Muula, A.S., Besa, C., Babaniyi, O., Songolo, P., Kankiza, N. and Rudatsikira, E. (2013) Cannabis Use and Its Socio-Demographic Correlates among In-School Adolescents in Zambia. Italian Journal of Pediatrics, 39, 13.
[56] Miller, T.R, Lestina, D.C. and Smith, G.S. (2001) Injury Risk among Medically Identified Alcohol and Drug Abusers. Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research, 25, 54-59.
[57] Cherpitel, C.J. (1999) Substance Use, Injury and Risk-Taking Dispositions in the General Population. Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research, 23, 121-126. Http://Dx.Doi.Org/10.1111/J.1530-0277.1999.Tb04032.X
[58] Li, Y., Jin, H., Owens, J.A. and Hu, C. (2008) The Association between Sleep and Injury among School-Aged Children in Rural China: A Case-Control Study. Sleep Medicine, 9, 142-148.
[59] Stallones, L., Beseler, C. and Chen, P. (2006) Sleep Patterns and Risk of Injury among Adolescent Farm Residents. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 30, 300-304.
[60] Turner, C., McClure, R. and Pirozzo, S. (2004) Injury and Risk-Taking Behavior—A Systematic Review. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 36, 93-101.
[61] Peltzer, K. (2009) Health Behavior and Protective Factors among School Children in Four African Countries. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 16, 172-180.
[62] Mock, C., Acheampong, F., Adjei, S. and Koepsell, T. (1999) The Effect of Recall on Estimation of Incidence Rates for Injury in Ghana. International Journal of Epidemiology, 28, 750-755.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.