Reconstruction of Sub-Decadal Winter Half-Year Temperature during 1651-2010 for the North China Plain Using Records of Frost Date


We extracted 374 pieces of records of frost date from historical documents. Using these records, we reconstructed winter half-year (October to next April) temperature series, with a resolution of 5-year, for the North China Plain during 1651-2010. The results show that the temperature changes in the North China Plain were divided into four phases. With the reference period of 1951-1980, two cold phases, 1651-1700 and 1781-1900, have cold anomaly of 0.83°C and 0.60°C respectively. However, between the two cold phases, 1701-1780 was a relative warm phase with the cold anomaly of 0.36°C referring to the mean of 1951-1980. After the 1900, the climate came into a warm phase. The mean temperature of 1901-2010 was 0.11°C higher than the mean of 1951-1980. During 1651-2010, the 1996-2000 is the warmest 5-year with the warm anomaly of 1.25°C than that of the reference period of 1951-1980.

Share and Cite:

Yan, J. , Ge, Q. , Liu, H. , Zheng, J. and Fu, H. (2014) Reconstruction of Sub-Decadal Winter Half-Year Temperature during 1651-2010 for the North China Plain Using Records of Frost Date. Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, 4, 211-218. doi: 10.4236/acs.2014.42024.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] IPCC (2007) Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. WGI Fourth Assessment Report, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Geneva.
[2] IGBP (2009) PAGES Science Plan and Implementation Strategy. International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP), Stockholm.
[3] Zhang, X.Z., Ge, Q.S., Fang, X.Q., Zheng, J.Y. and Fei, J. (2013) Precipitation Variations in Beijing during 1860-1897 AD Revealed by Daily Weather Records from the Weng Tong-He Diary. International Journal of Climatology, 33, 568-576.
[4] Jones, P.D., Briffa, K.R., Osborn, T.J., Lough, J.M., van Ommen, T.D., Vinther, B.M. and Xoplaki, E. (2009) High-Resolution Paleoclimatology of the Last Millennium: A Review of Current Status and Future Prospects. Holocene, 19, 3-49.
[5] Aono, Y. and Kazui, K. (2008) Phenological Data Series of Cherry Tree Flowering in Kyoto, Japan, and Its Application to Reconstruction of Springtime Temperatures since the 9th Century. International Journal of Climatology, 28, 905-914.
[6] Mikami, T. (2008) Climatic Variations in Japan Reconstructed from Historical Documents. Weather, 63, 190-193.
[7] Brázdil, R., Pfister, C., Wanner, H. and Luterbacher, J. (2005) Historical Climatology in Europe—The State of Art. Climatic Change, 70, 363-430.
[8] Brázdil, R., Dobrovolny, P., Luterbacher, J., Moberg, A., Pfister, C., Wheeler, D. and Zoritaand, E. (2010) European Climate of the Past 500 Years: New Challenges for Historical Climatology. Climatic Change, 101, 7-40.
[9] Jones, P. (2008) Historical Climatology—A State of the Art Review. Weather, 63, 181-186.
[10] Dobrovolny, P., Moberg, A. and Brázdil, R. (2010) Monthly, Seasonal and Annual Temperature Reconstructions for Central Europe Derived from Documentary Evidence and Instrumental Records since AD 1500. Climatic Change, 101, 69-107.
[11] Mozny, M., Brázdil, R., Dobrovolny, P. and Trnka, M. (2012) Cereal Harvest Dates in the Czech Republic between 1501 and 2008 as a Proxy for March-June Temperature Reconstruction. Climatic Change, 110, 801-821.
[12] Chu, K.Z. (1973) A Preliminary Study on the Climatic Fluctuations during the Last 5000 Years in China. Scientia Sinica (Series A), 16, 226-256.
[13] Wang, R.S. and Wang, S.W. (1990) Reconstruction of Winter Temperature in Eastern China during the Past 500 Years Using Historical Documents (in Chinese). Acta Meteorologica Sinica, 48, 180-189.
[14] Wang, S.W. (1991) Reconstruction of Temperature Series of North China from 1380s to 1980s. Science in China (Series B), 34, 751-759.
[15] Wang, S.W., Ye, J.L. and Gong, D.Y. (1998) Climate in China during the Little Ice Age (in Chinese). Quaternary Sciences, 1, 54-64.
[16] Zhang, D.E. (1980) Winter Temperature Changes during the Last 500 Years in South China. Chinese Science Bulletin, 25, 497-500.
[17] Ge, Q.S., Zheng, J.Y., Fang, X.Q., Man, Z.M., Zhang, X.Q., Zhang, P.Y. and Wang, W.-C. (2003) Winter Half-Year Temperature Reconstruction for the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yellow River and Yangtze River, China, during the Past 2000 Years. Holocene, 13, 933-940.
[18] Hao, Z.X., Zheng, J.Y., Ge, Q.S. and Wang, W.-C. (2012) Winter Temperature Variations over the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River since 1736 AD. Climate of the Past, 8, 1023-1030.
[19] Zheng, J.Y., Man, Z.M., Fang, X.Q. and Ge, Q.S. (2005) Temperature Variation in the Eastern China during Wei, Jin, and South-North Dynasties. Quaternary Sciences, 25, 129-140.
[20] Zheng, J.Y., Ding, L.L. and Hao, Z.X. (2012) Extreme Cold Events in Southern China during AD 1650-2000. Boreas, 41, 1-12.
[21] Zhang, D.E. (2004) A Compendium of Chinese Meteorological Records of the Last 3000 years. Phonenix Publishing House, Nanjing.
[22] Ge, Q.S., Zheng, J.Y., Tian, Y.Y., Wu, W.X., Fang, X.Q. and Wang, W.-C. (2008) Coherence of Climatic Reconstruction from Historical Documents in China by Different Studies. International Journal of Climatology, 28, 1007-1024.

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.