Share This Article:

Demands, Resources and the Three Dimensions of Flow at Work. A Study among Professional Nurses

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:309KB) PP. 255-264
DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2014.44030    3,500 Downloads   4,670 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Within the healthcare context is very important to foster the dynamics leading to positive experiences at work, in order to promote work motivation and well-being. This study investigated the influence of some personal and job resources and of some job demands on the three dimensions (absorption, work enjoyment, intrinsic work motivation) of flow at work, on the basis of Job Demands-Resources Model. Flow at work is an inner experience arising during an activity in which people are immersed, feel motivated and enjoy it. Studies suggest that resources are the main antecedents of the flow experience. Respondents to the questionnaire were 197 nurses. Multiple regressions were performed to detect the resources and the demands that influence the three dimensions of flow at work. As expected, resources positively influenced the dimensions of flow at work, particularly work enjoyment. Job demands positively influenced absorption and negatively influenced the other two dimensions of flow at work. Human resources managers should promote flow at work supporting the availability of resources and monitoring the job demands.

Cite this paper

Colombo, L. and Zito, M. (2014) Demands, Resources and the Three Dimensions of Flow at Work. A Study among Professional Nurses. Open Journal of Nursing, 4, 255-264. doi: 10.4236/ojn.2014.44030.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

References

[1] Bringsén, A., Ejlertsson, G. and Andersson, I.H. (2011) Flow Situations during Ever Day Practice in a Medical Hospital Ward. Results from a Study Based on Experience Sampling Method. BMC Nursing, 10, 1-9.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6955-10-3
[2] Kelloway, K.E., Teed, M. and Kelley, E. (2008) The Psychosocial Environment: Towards an Agenda for Research. International Journal of Workplace Health Management, 1, 50-64.
[3] Mäkikangas, A., Bakker, A.B., Aunola, K. and Demerouti, E. (2010) Job Resources and Flow at Work: Modelling the Relationship via Latent Growth Curve and Mixture Model Methodology. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 3, 795-814. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/096317909X476333
[4] Bakker, A.B. and Demerouti, E. (2008) The Crossover of Work Engagement: A Closer Look at the Role of Empathy. Special Issue on Crossover for Journal of Managerial Psychology, 1-29.
[5] Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990) Flow. The Psychology of Optimal Experience. Harper and Row, New York.
[6] Hackman, J.R. and Oldham, G.R. (1980) Work Redesign. Addison-Wesley, Reading.
[7] Cortese, C.G. (2005) Motivare. Raffaello Cortina, Milano.
[8] Bakker, A.B. and Demerouti, E. (2007) The Job Demands-Resources Model: State of the Art. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 22, 309-328. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02683940710733115
[9] Bakker, A.B. (2005) Flow among Music Teachers and Their Students: The Crossover of Peak Experiences. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 66, 26-44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2003.11.001
[10] Bakker, A.B. (2008) The Work-Related Flow Inventory: Construction and Initial Validation of the WOLF. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 72, 400-414. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2007.11.007
[11] Salanova, M., Bakker, A.B. and Llorens, S. (2006) Flow at Work: Evidence for an Upward Spiral of Personal and Organizational Resources. Journal of Happiness Studies, 7, 1-22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10902-005-8854-8
[12] Csikszentmihalyi, M. and LeFevre, J. (1989) Optimal Experience in Work and Leisure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 5, 815-822. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.56.5.815
[13] Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2003) Good Business. Leadership, Flow and Making the Meaning. Penguin Group, New York.
[14] Demerouti, E. (2006) Job Characteristics, Flow, and Performance: The Moderating Role of Conscientiousness. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 11, 266-280. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1076-8998.11.3.266
[15] Hobfoll, S.E. (2002) Social and Psychological Resources and Adaptation. Review of General Psychology, 6, 307-324.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1089-2680.6.4.307
[16] Bakker, A.B., Demerouti, E., De Boer, E. and Schaufeli, W.B. (2003) Job Demands and Job Resources as Predictors of Absence Duration and Frequency. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 62, 341-356.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0001-8791(02)00030-1
[17] Demerouti, E., Bakker, A.B., Nachreiner, F. and Schaufeli, W.B. (2000) A Model of Burnout and Life Satisfaction among Nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 32, 454-464. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2648.2000.01496.x
[18] CENSIS (2012) L’infermiere protagonista della buona sanità del futuro. http://www.censis.it
[19] Colombo, L., Zito, M. and Cortese, C.G. (2013) The Italian Version of the Work-Related Flow Inventory (WOLF): First Psychometric Evaluations. Bollettino di Psicologia Applicata, 268, 37-42.
[20] Scheier, M.F., Carver, C.S. and Bridges, M.W. (1994) Distinguishing Optimism from Neuroticism (and Trait Anxiety, Self-Mastery, and Self-Esteem): A Reevaluation of the Life Orientation Test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 1063-1078. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.67.6.1063
[21] Avallone, F., Pepe, S. and Porcelli, R. (2007) Autoefficacia percepita nella ricerca del lavoro: Scale di misura. In: Isfol, Bisogni, valori e autoefficacia nella scelta del lavoro, ISFOL, Roma, 133-142.
[22] Meretoja, R., Isoaho, H. and Leino-Kilpi, H. (2004) Nurse Competence Scale: Development and Psychometric Testing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 47, 124-133. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2004.03071.x
[23] Colombo, L. and Zito, M. (2012) Job-Demands Resources Model and Exhaustion: The Role of Flow-Work Enjoyment. A Study in a Health Care Context. In: Mokrys, M. and Lieskovsky, A., Eds., Advanced Research in Scientific Areas, EDIS-Published Institution of the University of Zilina, Zilina, 776-781.
[24] Caplan, R.D., Cobb, S., French Jr., J.R.P., Harrison, R.V. and Pinneau Jr., S.R. (1975) Job Demands Worker Health: Main Effects and Occupational Differences. National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, US Government Printing Office, Washington DC.
[25] Bakker, A.B., Demerouti, E. and Verbeke, W. (2004) Using the Job Demands-Resources Model to Predict Burnout and Performance. Human Resource Management, 43, 83-104. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hrm.20004
[26] Avallone, F. and Paplomatas, A. (2005) Salute Organizzativa. Raffaello Cortina, Milano.
[27] Karasek, R. and Theorell, T. (1990) Healthy Work-Stress, Productivity and the Reconstruction of Working Life. Basic Books, New York.
[28] Bakker, A.B., Demerouti, E., Taris, T., Schaufeli, W.B. and Schreurs, P. (2003) A Multi-Group Analysis of the Job Demands-Resources Model in Four Home Care Organizations. International Journal of Stress Management, 10, 16-38.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1072-5245.10.1.16
[29] Dormann, C. and Zapf, D. (2004) Customer-Related Social Stressors and Burnout. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 9, 61-82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1076-8998.9.1.61
[30] Zapf, D., Vogt, C., Seifert, C., Mertini, H. and Isic, A. (1999) Emotion Work as a Source of Stress: The Concept and the Development of an Instrument. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 8, 371-400.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/135943299398230
[31] Luthans, F. (2003) Positive Organizational Behavior (POB): Implications for Leadership and HR Development and Motivation. In: Steers, R.M., Porter, L.W. and Bigley, G.A., Eds., Motivation and Leadership at Work, McGraw-Hill/ Irwin, New York.
[32] Demerouti, E., Bakker, A.B., Sonnentag, S. and Fullgar, C.J. (2012) Work-Related Flow and Energy at Work and at Home: A Study on the Role Daily Recovery. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 3, 276-295.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.760

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.