Evaluation of Toxicological Risk Related to Presence of Lead and Cadmium in Moringa oleifera Lam. Leaves Powders Marketed in Cotonou (Benin)

DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.59087   PDF   HTML     4,434 Downloads   6,017 Views   Citations

Abstract

To evaluate lead and cadmium contamination in Moringa oleifera leaves powders marketed in Cotonou and health risks associated with its consumption, cross-sectional and analytical study were done from October 23th, 2012 to June 20th, 2013. Samples of Moringa powders were purchased at different outlets (health centers, supermarkets, pharmacy, etc.). Assays were performed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry after digestion according calcination method. Pb and Cd levels were compared with Codex Alimentarius standards, using the Student t test. Daily Exposure Doses (DDE) and Hazard Quotients (HQ) specific to each contaminant were calculated using a conventional method. Results revealed that the mean concentration of lead for all samples (1.526 mg/kg) exceeded of about 5.08 times the maximum allowable limit whereas cadmium levels (0.246 mg/kg) was not statistically higher than the standard. The highest concentrations of Pb and Cd are respectively 4.263 mg/kg and 0.354 mg/kg. Children are 2.3 to 3.8 times in greater danger than adults although all QD calculated are less than 1, reflecting that there is a low risk to consumers in general. For both metals, DJE specifically linked to the consumption of Moringa was less than 2% compared to other kinds of food intake. In conclusion, the current level of contamination (with lead and cadmium) of Moringa leaves powders marketed in Cotonou is not yet an alarming threat to consumers’ health. However, care must be taken to reduce chemical pollution especially soils where these plants grow.

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Aissi, A. , Pazou, E. , Ahoyo, T. , Fah, L. , Fanou, B. , Koumolou, L. , Koudokpon, H. , Agbangla, C. , Gnandi, K. , Loko, F. and Edorh, P. (2014) Evaluation of Toxicological Risk Related to Presence of Lead and Cadmium in Moringa oleifera Lam. Leaves Powders Marketed in Cotonou (Benin). Food and Nutrition Sciences, 5, 770-778. doi: 10.4236/fns.2014.59087.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

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