Comparative Toxicity of “Tin Free” Self-Polishing Copolymer Antifouling Paints and Their Inhibitory Effects on Larval Development of a Non-Target Organism


Toxic substances released as a result of leaching from painted surfaces to the aquatic environment affect both fouling organisms and non-target biota. Artemia fransiscana nauplii have been considered a useful test system for the examination of toxicity for antifouling paints. In this study, we examined the effect of four tin free self-polishing copolymer (SPC) antifouling paints on the larval development of Artemia nauplii. Based on the L(S/V)50 values the order of toxicity of the antifouling paints was: ANTI F > SHARKSKIN > OCEAN T/F > MICRON. Furthermore, the body size of Artemia nauplii was significantly affected at lethal and above lethal L(S/V)5024h values. The body size of 48 h-aged nauplii exposed for the last 24 hours to each of the four SPC antifouling paints was significantly lower than that of the 48 h-aged controls (0.88 ± 0.030 mm). In addition, the body size of 72 h-aged nauplii maintained for the last 24 hours to pure synthetic seawater after exposure for 24 hours to each of the four SPC antifouling paints was significantly lower than that of the 72 h-aged controls (0.96 ±0.027 mm). Overall, the SPCs examined here were substantially toxic to Artemia nauplii, but with different toxicities and modes of action, as a result of the synergistic action of distinct components of the antifouling paints.

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Castritsi-Catharios, J. , Alambritis, G. , Miliou, H. , Cotou, E. and Zouganelis, G. (2014) Comparative Toxicity of “Tin Free” Self-Polishing Copolymer Antifouling Paints and Their Inhibitory Effects on Larval Development of a Non-Target Organism. Materials Sciences and Applications, 5, 158-169. doi: 10.4236/msa.2014.53020.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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