Removal of Cu(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) Ions from Aqueous Solutions Using Selected Agricultural Wastes: Adsorption and Characterisation Studies

DOI: 10.4236/jep.2014.54032   PDF   HTML     5,298 Downloads   7,976 Views   Citations


The feasibility of durian tree sawdust (DTS), coconut coir (CC) and oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) as low-cost biosorbents for the removal of Cu(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) ions from aqueous solutions was investigated. The effects of solution pH and initial metal concentration on adsorption capacity were examined in batch experiments. The affinity and the adsorption capacity of DTS, CC and EFB were evaluated. The adsorption behaviour of Cu(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) ions onto DTS, CC and EFB was described using Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models. The separation factor (RL) analysis suggests that the removal of metal ions onto three agricultural wastes studied was favourable. The maximum adsorption capacities (Q) estimated from the Langmuir isotherm model for Cu(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) were 18.42, 20.37 and 22.78 mg/g for DTS, 18.38, 37.04 and 24.39 mg/g for CC, and 26.95, 37.59 and 21.19 mg/g for EFB, respectively. The characterisation studies were carried out using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer (EDX) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR). The surface morphology of the biosorbents changed significantly following interaction with metal ions. The primary adsorption mechanism was complexation between metal ions and binding sites of biosorbents. Both hydroxyl and amine groups are the main binding sites in DTS, CC and EFB.

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Yusoff, S. , Kamari, A. , Putra, W. , Ishak, C. , Mohamed, A. , Hashim, N. and Isa, I. (2014) Removal of Cu(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) Ions from Aqueous Solutions Using Selected Agricultural Wastes: Adsorption and Characterisation Studies. Journal of Environmental Protection, 5, 289-300. doi: 10.4236/jep.2014.54032.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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