On the Heisenberg and Schrödinger Pictures

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:245KB) PP. 171-176
DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2014.55027    4,883 Downloads   6,949 Views   Citations


A quantum theory for a one-electron system can be developed in either Heisenberg picture or Schrodinger picture. For a many-electron system, a theory must be developed in the Heisenberg picture, and the indistinguishability and Pauli’s exclusion principle must be incorporated. The hydrogen atom energy levels are obtained by solving the Schrodinger energy eigenvalue equation, which is the most significant result obtained in the Schrodinger picture. Both boson and fermion field equations are nonlinear in the presence of a pair interaction.

Cite this paper

How to cite this paper: Fujita, S., MacNabb III, J. and Suzuki, A. (2014) On the Heisenberg and Schrödinger Pictures. Journal of Modern Physics, 5, 171-176. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jmp.2014.55027

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Dirac, P.A.M. (1958) The Principles of Quantum Mechanics. 4th Edition, Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, 89-94; 121-125; 130-136; 136-139; 207-211; 227-237; 248-252.
[2] Debye, P. (1972) Annalen der Physik, 39, 789-839.
[3] Ginzburg, V.L. and Landau, L.D. (1950) Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz., 20, 1064-1082. [English translation in: L. D. Landau, “Collected papers,” Oxford: Pergamon Press (1965), 546.]

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.