Holocene Environmental Climatic Changes Based on Palynofacies and Organic Geochemical Analyses from an Inland Pond at Altitude in Southern Brazil


This paper focuses on the interpretations in the analyses of palynofacies and organic geochemistry carried out on a sedimentary profile covering 9542 cal yr BP from a pond located at the mining district from Ametista do Sul, southernmost Brazil. The hydrological isolation renders this pond, located on a hilltop, highly sensitive to climatic change because the water entering in the system is subsidized exclusively by the rainfall. The main goal of this study is to establish relationships between the sedimentary organic record and climatic fluctuations in the Holocene, trying to correlate the alterations in the particulate organic matter with regional climatic changes or perhaps even events on a global scale. Fluctuations in water depth are inferred from the frequency of the autochthonous elements (algae), which predominate in the basal intervals, but tend to decrease progressively toward the top, when begining to alternate periods of high and low frequency with the parautochthonous (spores) and allochthonous (pollen grains) elements, due to changes in the patterns of moisture. Pseudoschizaea seems to have a closer relationship with the spores than with all other algae and can serve as a biological marker of transitional intervals or have some role in the successional process of vegetation. The variety of spores of ferns and pollen grains on the topmost interval indicates increased vegetal diversity, and is probably related to the process of successional evolution of the area. An increased rainfall event detected between 8.6 to 7.4 ka yr BP can be responsible for the beginning of the process of water accumulation in the gossan and sedimentation of the pond and can be related with the “Bond Events”. The saturation level of the pond, in turn, remained relatively constant until 6.8 ka yr BP, when changes in the patterns of moisture make the environment drier and resulted in an intermittent pattern of water depth, currently existing on the site.

Share and Cite:

Gadens-Marcon, G. , Guerra-Sommer, M. , Mendonça-Filho, J. , Mendonça, J. , Carvalho, M. and Hartmann, L. (2014) Holocene Environmental Climatic Changes Based on Palynofacies and Organic Geochemical Analyses from an Inland Pond at Altitude in Southern Brazil. American Journal of Climate Change, 3, 95-117. doi: 10.4236/ajcc.2014.31009.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Tyson, R.V. (1995) Sedimentary Organic Matter: Organic Facies and Palynofacies. Chapman & Hall, London, 615p. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-0739-6
[2] Di-Giovanni, C., Disnar, J.R., Campy, M. and Macaire, J.J. (1999) Variability of the Ancient Organic Supply in Modern Humus. Analusis, 27, 398-401.
[3] Noel, H., Garbolino, E., Brauer, A., Lallier-Verges, E., de Beaulieu, J.L. and Disnar, J.R. (2001) Human Impact and Soil Erosion During the Last 5000 yrs as Recorded in Lacustrine Sedimentary Organic Matter at Lac d’Annecy, the French Alps. Journal of Paleolimnology, 25, 229-244.
[4] Gastaldo, R.A. and Huc, A.Y. (1992) Sediment Facies, Depositional Environments, and Distribution of Phytoclasts in the Recent Mahakam River Delta, Kalimantan, Indonesia. Palaios, 7, 574-590.
[5] Cohen, A.D., Gage, C.P. and Moore, W.S. (1999) Combining Organic Petrography and Palynology to Assess Anthropogenic Impacts on Peatlands. Part 1. An Example from the Northern Everglades of Florida. International Journal of Coal Geology, 39, 3-45.
[6] Cohen, A.D., Gage, C.P., Moore, W.S. and van Pelt, R.S. (1999) Combining Organic Petrography and Palynology to Assess Anthropogenic Impacts on Peatlands. Part 2. An Example from a Carolina Bay Wetland at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. International Journal of Coal Geology, 39, 47-95.
[7] Sebag, D., Di-Giovanni, C., Ogier, S., Mesnage, V., Laggoun-Defarge, F. and Durand, A. (2006) Inventory of Sedimentary Organic Matter in Modern Wetland (Marais Vernier, Normandy, France) as Source Indicative Tools to Study Holocene Alluvial Deposits (Lower Seine Valley, France). International Journal of Coal Geology, 67, 1-16.
[8] Marchand, C., Lallier-Verges, E. and Baltzer, F. (2003) The Composition of Sedimentary Organic Matter in Relation to the Dynamic Features of the Mangrove-Fringed Coast in French Guiana. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Sciences, 56, 119-130.
[9] Sparica, M., Koch, G., Belak, M., Miko, S., Sparica-Miko, M., Vilicic, D., Dolenec, T., Bergant, S., Lojen, S., Vreca, P., Dolenec, M., Ogrinc, N. and Ibrahimpasic, H. (2005) Recent Sediments of Makirina Cove (Northern Dalmatia, Croatia): Their Origin Viewed Through a Multidisciplinary Approach. Geologia Croatica, 58, 21-71.
[10] Lallier-Verges, A., Sifeddine, A., de Beaulieu, J.L., Reille, M., Tribovillard, N., Bertrand, P., Mongenot, T., Thouveny, N., Disnar, J.R. and Guillet, B. (1993) The Lacustrine Organic Sedimentation as a Response to the Late Wurmian and Holocene Climatic Variations—Lac Du Bouchet (Haute-Loire, France). Bulletin de la Societe Geologique de France, 164, 661-673.
[11] Luckge, A., Boussafir, M., Lallier-Verges, E. and Littke, R. (1996) Comparative Study of Organic Matter in Immature Sediments Along the Continental Margins of Peru and Oman. Part I: Results of Petrographical and Bulk Geochemical Data. Organic Geochemistry, 24, 437-451.
[12] Valdes, J., Sifeddine, A., Lallier-Verges, E. and Ortlieb, L. (2004) Petrographic and Geochemical Study of Organic Matter in Surficial Laminated Sediments from an Upwelling System (Mejillones del Sur Bay, Northern Chile). Organic Geochemistry, 35, 881-894.
[13] Lallier-Verges, E. and Alberic, P. (1990) Optical and Geochemical Study of Organic Matter in Present Oxic Sediments (Equatorial North Pacific Ocean, NIXO Area). Oceanologica Acta, 10, 281-291.
[14] Mendonca-Filho, J.G. (1999) Aplicacao de Estudos de Palinofacies e Facies Organica em Rochas do Paleozoico Superior da Bacia do Parana, Sul do Brasil. Ph.D. Dissertation, Universidade do Rio Grande do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul.
[15] Carvalho, M.A., Mendonca-Filho, J.G. and Menezes, T.R. (2006) Palaeoenvironmental Reconstruction Based on Palynofacies Analysis of the Aptian-Albian Succession of the Sergipe Basin, Northeastern Brazil. Marine Micropaleontology, 59, 56-81.
[16] Carvalho, M.A., Mendonca-Filho, J.G. and Menezes, T.R. (2006) Palynofacies and Sequence Stratigraphy of the Aptian/Albian of the Sergipe Basin, Brazil. Sedimentary Geology, 192, 57-74.
[17] Iemini, J.A., Mendonca-Filho, J.G., Goncalves, F.T.T. and Menezes, T.R. (2007) Facies organica da Formacao La Luna, Bacia do Vale Superior de Magdalena, Colombia: Implicacoes para a Geracao de Petroleo e Caracterizacao Paleoambiental. Anuario do Instituto de Geociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 30, 65-81.
[18] Del Papa, C., Garcia, V. and Quattrocchio, M. (2002) Sedimentary Facies and Palynofacies Assemblages in an Eocene Perennial Lake, Lumbrera Formation, Northwest Argentina. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 15, 553-569.
[19] Menezes, T.R. and Mendonca-Filho, J.G. (2004) Aplicacao de Facies Organica na Analise Paleoceanografica do Talude Continental Superior Recente da Bacia de Campos, RJ, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Paleontologia, 7, 177-188.
[20] Menezes, T.R., Araujo, C.V., Strohschoen Jr., O., Lana, C.C. and Maizatto, J.R. (2005) Relationship Between TOC Contents and Palynofacies Distribution of a Paleogene Section from Jequitinhonha Basin, Brazil. Proceedings of the 26th International Meeting on Organic Geochemistry, Sevilha, 298-299.
[21] Meyer, K.E.B., Mendonca-Filho, J.G., Ashraf, A.R., Souza, P.A. and Reichhart, K. (2005) Analises de Palinofacies em Sedimentos Holocenicos da Lagoa dos Quadros, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Paleontologia, 8, 57-72. http://dx.doi.org/10.4072/rbp.2005.1.05
[22] Meyer, K.E.B., Souza, P.A., Cwik, M.R., Menezes, T.R. and Buchmann, F.S.C. (2006) Palinofacies e Processos Deposicionais em Sedimentos de Fundo da Lagoa dos Quadros, Planicie Costeira do Rio Grande do sul, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Geociencias, 36, 569-576.
[23] Meyer, K.E.B., Buchi, A., Karfunkel, J., Hofmann, M. and Hoppe, A. (2010) Palinofacies e Evolucao Quaternaria do Ribeirao da Mata, Municipio de Vespasiano, MG, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Paleontologia, 13, 41-48.
[24] Medeanic, S. and Silva, M.B. (2010) Indicative Value of Non-Pollen Palynomorphs (NPPs) and Palynofacies for Palaeoreconstructions: Holocene Peat, Brazil. International Journal of Coal Geology, 84, 248-257.
[25] Chagas, R.B.A., Mendonca-Filho, J.G., Mendonca, J.O. and Menezes, T.R. (2009) Caracterizacao Palinofaciologica de uma Sucessao Sedimentar Oligocenica da Formacao Tremembe, Bacia de Taubate. Revista Brasileira de Paleontologia, 12, 257-266. http://dx.doi.org/10.4072/rbp.2009.3.08
[26] Mendonca Filho, J.G., Chagas, R.B.A., Menezes, T.R., Mendonca, J.O., Silva, F.S. and Sabadini-Santos, E. (2010) Organic Facies of the Oligocene Lacustrine System in the Cenozoic Taubate Basin, Southern Brazil. International Journal of Coal Geology, 84, 166-178.
[27] Silva, Y.M.P., Meyer, K.E.B., Peronico, C. and Castro, P.T.A. (2010) Palinofacies de uma Sequencia Sedimentar Quaternaria da Lagoa Preta, Parque Estadual do Rio Doce, MG, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Paleontologia, 13, 49-56. http://dx.doi.org/10.4072/rbp.2010.1.06
[28] Sifeddine, A., Martin, L., Turcq, B., Volkmer-Ribeiro, C., Soubies, F., Cordeiro, R.C. and Suguio, K. (2001) Variations of the Amazonian Rainforest Environment: A Sedimentological Record Covering 30,000 Years. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 168, 221-235.
[29] Sifeddine, A., Albuquerque, A.L.S., Ledru, M.P., Turcq, B., Knoppers, B., Martin, L., Mello, W.Z., Passenau, H., Dominguez, J.M.L., Cordeiro, R.C., Abrao, J.J., Pinto, C.S. and Bittencourt, A.C. (2003) A 21000 cal years Paleoclimatic Record from Caco Lake, Northern Brazil: Evidence from Sedimentary and Pollen Analyses. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 189, 25-34.
[30] Turcq, B., Albuquerque, A.L.S., Cordeiro, R.C., Sifeddine, A., Simoes-Filho, F.F.L., Souza, A.G., Abrao, J.J., Oliveira, F.B.L., Silva, A.O. and Capitaneo, J. (2002) Accumulation of Organic Carbon in Five Brazilian Lakes During the Holocene. Sedimentary Geology, 148, 319-342.
[31] Jacob, J., Disnar, J.R., Boussafir, M., Sifeddine, A., Albuquerque, A.L.S. and Turcq, B. (2004) Major Environmental Changes Recorded by Lacustrine Sedimentary Organic Matter since the Last Glacial Maximum under the Tropics (Lagoa do Caco, NE Brazil). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 205, 183-197.
[32] Sebag, D., Copard, Y., Di-Giovanni, C., Durand, A., Laignel, B., Ogier, S. and Lallier-Verges, E. (2006) Palynofacies as Useful Tool to Study Origins and Transfers of Particulate Organic Matter in Recent Terrestrial Environments: Synopsis and Prospects. Earth-Science Reviews, 79, 241-259.
[33] Hartmann, L.A. (2008) Amethyst Geodes Formed from Hot Water in Dinossaur Times. Editora da UFRGS, Porto Alegre.
[34] Markgraf, V. (1998) Past Climates of South America. In: Hobbs, J.A., Lindsay, J.A. and Bridgman, H.A., Eds., Climates of the Southern Continents: Present, Past and Future, Wiley, Chichester, 249-264.
[35] Strikes, N.M., Cruz, F.W., Cheng, H., Karmann, I., Edwards, R.L., Vuille, M., Wang, X., Paula, M.S., Novello, F.S. and Auler, A.S. (2011) Abrupt Variations in South American Monsoon Rainfall During the Holocene Based on a Speleothem Record from Central-Eastern Brazil. Geology, 39, 1075-1078. http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/G32098.1
[36] Bond, G., Showers, W., Cheseby, M., Lotti, R., Almasi, P., Demenocal, P., Priore, P., Cullen, H., Hajdas, I. and Bonani, G. (1997) A Pervasive Millennial-Scale Cycle in North Atlantic Holocene and Glacial Climates. Science, 278, 1257-1266.
[37] Bond, G., Kromer, B., Beer, J., Muscheler, R., Evans, M.N., Showers, W., Hoffmann, S., Lotti-Bond, R., Hajdas, I. and Bonani, G. (2001) Persistent Solar Influence on North Atlantic Climate during the Holocene. Science, 294, 2130-2136.
[38] Fleitmann, D., Burns, S.J., Mudelsee, M., Neff, U., Kramers, J., Mangini, A. and Matter, A. (2003) Holocene Forcing of the Indian Monsoon Recorded in a Stalagmite from Southern Oman. Science, 300, 1737-1739.
[39] Wang, Y., Cheng, H., Edwards, R.L., He, Y., Kong, X., An, Z., Wu, J., Kelly, M.J., Dykoski, C.A. and Li, X. (2005) The Holocene Asian Monsoon: Links to Solar Changes and North Atlantic Climate. Science, 308, 854-857.
[40] Haug, G., Hughen, K., Sigman, D.M., Peterson, L.C. and Rohl, U. (2001) Southward Migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone through the Holocene. Science, 293, 1304-1308.
[41] Baker, P.A., Seltzer, G.O., Fritz, S.C., Dunbar, R.B., Grove, M.J., Tapia, P.M., Cross, S.L., Rowe, H.D. and Broda, J.P. (2001) The History of South American Tropical Precipitation for the Past 25,000 Years. Science, 291, 640-643.
[42] Baker, P.A., Fritz, S.C., Garland, J. and Ekdahl, E. (2005) Holocene Hydrologic Variation at Lake Titicaca, Bolivia/Peru, and its Relationship to North Atlantic Climate Variation. Journal of Quaternary Science, 20, 655-662.
[43] Cruz, F.W., Burns, S.J., Karmann, I., Sharp, W.D., Vuille, M., Cardoso, A.O., Ferrari, J.A., Silva Dias, P.L. and Viana Jr., O. (2005) Insolation-Driven Changes in Atmospheric Circulation over the Past 116,000 Years in Subtropical Brazil. Nature, 434, 63-66.
[44] Sallum, A.E.M., Sallum-Filho, W., Suguio, K., Babinski, M., Gioia, S.M.C.L., Harlow, B.A., Duleba, W., Oliveira, P.E., Garcia, M.J., Weber, C.Z., Christofoletti, S.R., Santos, C.S., Medeiros, V.B., Silva, J., Hussein, M.C.S. and Fernandes, R.S. (2012) Geochemical Evidence of the 8.2 ka Event and Other Holocene Environmental Changes Recorded in Paleolagoon Sediments, Southeastern Brazil. Quaternary Research, 77, 31-43.
[45] Behling, H., Pillar, V.P., Orloci, L. and Bauermann, S.G. (2004) Late Quaternary Araucaria Forest, Grassland (Campos), Fire and Climate Dynamics, Studied by High-Resolution Pollen, Charcoal and Multivariate Analysis of the Cambara do Sul Core in Southern Brazil. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 203, 277-297.
[46] Behling, H., Pillar, V.P. and Bauermann, S.G. (2005) Late Quaternary Grassland (Campos), Gallery Forest, Fire and Climate Dynamics, Studied by Pollen, Charcoal and Multivariate Analysis of the Sao Francisco de Assis Core in Western Rio Grande do Sul (Southern Brazil). Review of Paleobotany and Palynology, 133, 235-248.
[47] Hartmann, L.A., Wildner, W., Duarte, L.C., Duarte, S.K., Pertille, J., Arena, K.R., Martins, L.C. and Dias, N.L. (2010) Geochemical and Scintillometric Characterization and Correlation of Amethyst Geode-Bearing Parana Lavas from the Quarai and Los Catalanes Districts, Brazil and Uruguay. Geological Magazine, 147, 954-970.
[48] Koppen, W. (1948) Climatologia: Con un Estudio de los Climas de la Tierra. Fondo de Cultura Economica, Mexico.
[49] Bellieni, G., Comin-Chiaramonti, P., Ernesto, M., Melfi, A.J., Pacca, I.G. and Piccirillo, E.M. (1984) Flood Basalt to Rhyolite Suites in the Southern Parana Plateau (Brazil): Paleomagnetism, Petrogenesis and Geodynamic Implications. Journal of Petrology, 25, 579-618.
[50] Araújo, L.M., Franca, A.B. and Potter, P.E. (1999) Hydrogeology of the Mercosul Aquifer System in the Parana and Chaco-Parana Basins, South America, and Comparison with the Navajo-Nugget Aquifer System, USA. Hydrogeology Journal, 7, 317-336.
[51] Scherer, C.M.S. (2000) Eolian Dunes of the Botucatu Formation (Cretaceous) in Southernmost Brazil: Morphology and Origin. Sedimentary Geology, 137, 63-84.
[52] Duarte, L.C., Hartmann, L.A., Vasconcelos, M.A.S., Medeiros, J.T.N. and Theye, T. (2009) Epigenetic Formation of Amethyst-Bearing Geodes from Los Catalanes Gemological District, Artigas, Uruguay, Southern Parana Volcanic Province. Journal of Volcanlogy and Geothermal Research, 184, 427-436.
[53] Rosenstengel, L.M. and Hartmann, L.A. (2012) Geochemical Stratigraphy of Lavas and Fault-Block Structures in the Ametista do Sul Geode Mining District, Parana Volcanic Province, Southern Brazil. Ore Geology Reviews, 48, 332-348.
[54] Pertille, J., Hartmann, L.A., Duarte, S.K., Arena, K., Rosa, M.L.C.C. and Barboza, E.G. (2013) Gossan Characterization in the Quarai and Los Catalanes Amethyst Geode Districts (Brazil and Uruguay), Parana Volcanic Province, Using Rock Geochemistry and Gamma-Spectrometry. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 124, 127-139.
[55] Hartmann, L.A., Duarte, L.C., Massonne, H.J., Michelin, C.R., Rosenstengel, L.M., Bergmann, M., Theye, T., Pertille, J., Arena, K.R., Duarte, S.K., Pinto, V.M., Barboza, E.G., Rosa, M.L.C.C. and Wildner, W. (2012) Sequential Opening and Filling of Cavities Forming Vesicles, Amygdales and Giant Amethyst Geodes in Lavas from the Southern Parana Volcanic Province, Brazil and Uruguay. International Geology Review, 54, 1-14.
[56] Folk, R.L. and Ward, W.C. (1957) Brazos River Bar: A Study of Significante of Grain Size Parameters. Journal of Sedimentology and Petrology, 27, 3-26.
[57] Stuiver, M., Reimer, P.J., Bard, E., Beck, J.W., Burr, G.S., Hughen, K.A., Kromer, B., McCormac, G., van der Plicht, J. and Spurk, M. (1998) INTCAL98 Radiocarbon Age Calibration, 24000-0 cal BP. Radiocarbon, 40, 1041-1083.
[58] American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). (2008) Standard Test Methods for Sulfur in the Analysis Sample of Coal and Coke Using High-Temperature Tube Furnace Combustion Methods ASTM 4239.
[59] United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). (2002) Methods for the Determination of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) in Soils and Sediments. Ecological Risk Assessment Support Center. NCEA-C-1282. Office of Research and Development, Las Vegas.
[60] Mendonca-Filho, J.G., Menezes, T.R., Mendonca, J.O., Oliveida, A.D., Carvalho, M.A., Sant’Anna, A.J. and Souza, J.T. (2010) Palinofacies. In: Carvalho, I.S., Ed., Paleontologia, Vol. 1, Interciencia, Rio de Janeiro, 289-323.
[61] Mendonca-Filho, J.G., Menezes, T.R. and Mendonca, J.O. (2011) Chapter 5: Organic Composition (Palynofacies Analysis). In: Vasconcelos, L., Flores, D. and Marques, M., Eds., ICCP Training Program Commission I, ICCP Training Course on Dispersed Organic Matter, International Committee for Coal and Organic Petrology, Porto, 33-81.
[62] Valentin, J.L. (2000) Ecologia Numerica. Interciencia, Rio de Janeiro.
[63] McCormac, F.G., Hogg, A.G., Blackwell, P.G., Buck, C.E., Higham, T.F.G. and Reimer, P.J. (2004) SHCal04 Southern Hemisphere Calibration, 0-11.0 cal kyr BP. Radiocarbon, 46, 1087-1092.
[64] Reimer, P.J., Baillie, M.G.L., Bard, E., Bayliss, A., Beck, J.W., Bertrand, C.J.H., Blackwell, P.G., Buck, C.E., Burr, G.S., Cutler, K.B., Damon, P.E., Edwards, R.L., Fairbanks, R.G., Friedrich, M., Guilderson, T.P., Hogg, A.G., Hughen, K.A., Kromer, B., McCormac, G., Manning, S., Bronk Ramsey, C., Reimer, R.W., Remmele, S., Southon, J.R., Stuiver, M., Talamo, S., Taylor, F.W., van der Plicht, J. and Weyhenmeyer, C.E. (2004) IntCal04 Terrestrial Radiocarbon Age Calibration, 0-26 cal kyr BP. Radiocarbon, 46, 1029-1058.
[65] Talma, A.S. and Vogel, J.C. (1993) A Simplified Approach to Calibrating C14 Dates. Radiocarbon, 35, 317-322.
[66] Tyson, R.V. (2001) Sedimentation Rate, Dilution, Preservation and Total Organic Carbon: Some Results of a Modeling Study. Organic Geochemistry, 32, 333-339.
[67] Berner, R.A. and Raiswell, R. (1984) C/S Method for Distinguishing Freshwater from Marine Sedimentary Rocks. Geology, 12, 365-368.
[68] Christopher, R.A. (1976) Morphology and Taxonomic Status of Pseudoschizaea Thiergart and Frantz ex R. Potonie emend. Micropaleontology, 22, 143-150. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1485396
[69] Leonhardt, A. and Lorscheitter, M.L. (2008) Polen de Gimnospermas e Angiospermas do Perfil Sedimentar de uma Turfeira em Sao Francisco de Paula, Planalto Leste do Rio Grande do Sul, Sul do Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Botanica, 31, 645-658.
[70] Leonhardt, A. and Lorscheitter, M.L. (2010) Polen de Magnoliopsida (Asteridae) e Liliopsida do Perfil Sedimentar de uma Turfeira em Sao Francisco de Paula, Planalto Leste do Rio Grande do Sul, Sul do Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Botanica, 33, 381-392.
[71] Van Geel, B. and van der Hammen, T. (1978) Zignemataceae in Quaternary Colombian Sediments. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 25, 377-392. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0034-6667(78)90021-0
[72] Van Gell, B. (1978) A Palaeoecolgical Study of Holocene Peat Bog Sections in Germany and the Netherlands, Based on One Analysis of Pollen and Macro and Microscopic Remais of Fungi, Algae, Cormophytes and Animals. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 25, 1-120.
[73] Scott, L. (1992) Environmental Implications and Origin of Microscopic Pseudoschizaea Thiergart and Frantz Ex R. Potonie emend. In Sediments. Journal of Biogeography, 19, 349-354.
[74] Esteves, F.A. (2011) Genese dos Ecossistemas Lacustres. In: Esteves, F.A., Ed., Fundamentos de Limnologia, Interciencia, Rio de Janeiro, 83-112.
[75] Carlson, A.E., Le Grande, A.N., Oppo, D.W., Came, R.E., Schmidt, G.A., Anslow, F.S., Licciardi, J.M. and Obbink, E. (2008) Rapid Early Holocene Deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Nature Geoscience, 1, 620-624.
[76] Williams, J.W., Blois, J.L. and Shuman, B.N. (2011) Extrinsic and Intrinsic Forcing of Abrupt Ecological Change: Case Studies from the Late Quaternary. Journal of Ecology, 99, 664-677.
[77] Salinger, M.J. and McGlone, M.S. (1990) New Zealand Climate: The Past Two Million years. New Zealand Climate Report, Royal Society of New Zealand, Wellington, 13-18.
[78] Gasse, F. and Vann Campo, E. (1994) Abrupt Post Glacial Events in West Asia and North Africa Monsoon Dynamics. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 126, 435-456.
[79] Alley, R.B., Mayewski, P.A., Sowers, T., Stuiver, M., Taylor, K.C. and Clark, P.U. (1997) Holocene Climatic Instability: A Prominent, Widespread Event 8,200 years ago. Geology, 25, 483-486.
[80] Wick, L. and Tinner, W. (1997) Vegetation Changes and Timberline Fluctuations in the Central Alps as Indicators of Holocene Climatic Oscillations. Arctic and Alpine Research, 29, 569-595. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1551992
[81] Klitgaard-Kristensen, D., Sejrup, H.P., Haflidason, H., Johnsen, S. and Spurk, M. (1998) A Regional 8200 cal. yr BP Cooling Event in Northwest Europe, Induced by Final Stages of the Laurentide Ice-Sheet Deglaciation? Journal of Quaternary Science, 13, 165-169.
[82] Hu, F.S., Slawinski, D., Wright Jr., H.E., Ito, E., Johnson, R.G., Kelts, K.R., McEwan, R.F. and Boedigheimer, A. (1999) Abrupt Changes in North American Climate during Early Holocene Times. Nature, 400, 437-440.
[83] Thompson, L.G., Mosley-Thompson, E., Davis, M.E., Henderson, K.A., Brecher, H.H., Zadorodnov, V.S., Mashiotta, T.A., Lin, P.N., Mikhalenko, V.N., Hardy, D.R. and Beer, J. (2002) Kilimanjaro Ice Core Records: Evidence of Holocene Climate Change in Tropical Africa. Science, 298, 589-593.
[84] Douglass, D.C., Singer, B.S., Kaplan, M.R., Ackert, R.P., Mickelson, D.M. and Caffee, M.W. (2005) Evidence for Early Holocene Glacial Advances in Southern South America from Cosmogenic Surface Exposure Dating. Geology, 33, 237-240.
[85] Ljung, K., Bjorck, S., Renssen, H. and Hammarlund, D. (2008) South Atlantic Island Record Reveals a South Atlantic Response to the 8.2 kyr Event. Climate of the Past, 4, 35-45. http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/cp-4-35-2008
[86] Cheng, H., Flitmann, D., Edwards, R.L., Wang, X., Cruz, F.W., Auler, A.S., Mangini, A., Wang, Y., Kong, X., Burns, S.J. and Matter, A. (2009) Timing and Structure of the 8.2 ky Event Inferred from δ18O Records of Stalagmites from China, Oman and Brazil. Geology, 37, 1007-1010. http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/G30126A.1

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.