Share This Article:

Assessment of Seedling Establishment and Growth Performance of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) De Wit., Senna siamea (Lam.) and Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maid. in Amended and Untreated Pyrite and Copper Tailings

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:1221KB) PP. 33-50
DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2014.21005    3,583 Downloads   6,906 Views   Citations


Growth and survival performance of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) De Wit., Senna siamea Lam. and Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maid. in amended and untreated pyrite and copper tailings were evaluated under field conditions. The physico-chemical characteristics of the pyrite soil and tailings were determined. Growth in height, basal diameter and later dbh, relative growth rate due to height (RGRh) and basal diameter (RGRd) and survival were determined every after six months. A split block experimental design was used and the data collected were analyzed using a statistical package R, with an additional package lme4. Tailings and pyrite soils had extremely low pH, poor nutritional status, low organic matter content and elevated concentrations of available heavy metals as compared to the unpolluted soils and treated pyrite soil and copper tailings. Growth performance was extremely poor on the untreated pyrite soil and copper tailings for all the species but significantly enhanced by the application of compost and limestone. Treatment had a significant effect on all parameters at all sites. Eucalyptus grandis displayed a higher potential of phytomass accumulation than Leucaena leucocephala and Senna siamea. Even though Leucaena leucocephala grew fastest reaching reproductive maturity in 7 months after planting, relative growth rates of the three species were not significantly different at all sites. The three species can be used for phytostabilisation of the tailings at Kilembe tailings dam sites (KTDS) after treatment while at Low polluted pyrite trail site (LPPTS) and Highly polluted pyrite trail sites (HPPTS) Senna siamea is more suitable as Eucalyptus grandis and Leucaena leucocephala are susceptible to attacks by Syncerus caffer (Buffalos) and Kobus kob thomasi (Uganda Kob).

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Ssenku, J. , Ntale, M. , Backéus, I. and Oryem-Origa, H. (2014) Assessment of Seedling Establishment and Growth Performance of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) De Wit., Senna siamea (Lam.) and Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maid. in Amended and Untreated Pyrite and Copper Tailings. Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, 2, 33-50. doi: 10.4236/jbm.2014.21005.


[1] Oryem-Origa, H., Makara, A. and Tusiime, F.M. (2007) Propagule Establishment in the Acid-Mine Polluted Soils of the Pyrite Trail in Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda. African Journal of Ecology, 45, 84-90.
[2] Muwanga, A., Oryem-Origa, H., Maksara., A., Hartwig, T., Ochan, A., Owor, M., Zachmann, D. and Pohl, W. (2009) Heavy Metals and Their Uptake by Plants in the River Nyamwam-ba-Rukoki-Kamulikwezi-Lake George System, Western Uganda. African Journal of Science and Technology, Science and Engineering Series, 10, 60-69.
[3] Barceló, J. and Poschenrieder, C. (2003) Phytoremediation: Principles and Perspectives. Contribution to Science, 2, 333-344.
[4] Cecchi, C.G.S. and Zanchi, C. (2005) Phytoremediation of Soil Polluted by Nickel Using Agricultural Crops. Environmental Management, 36, 675-681.
[5] Liu, X., Peng, K., Wang, A., Lian, C. and Shen, Z. (2010) Cadimium Accumulation and Distribution in Populations of Phytolacca americana L. and the Role of Transpiration. Chemosphere, 78, 1136-1141.
[6] Sylwia, W., Anna, R., Ewa, B., Stephanc, C. and Maria, A.D. (2010) The Role of Subcellular Distriution of Cadmium and Phytochelatins in the Generation of Distinct Phenotypes of AtPCS1-and CePCS3 Expressing Tobacco. Journal of Plant Physiology, 167, 981-988.
[7] Huang, H., Yu, N., Wang, L., Gupta, D.K., He, Z., Wang, K., Zhu, Z., Yan, X., Li, T. and Yang, X. (2011) The Phyto-remediation Potential of Bioenergy Crop Ricinus communis for DDTs and Cadmium co-Contaminated Soil. Bioresource Technology, 102, 11034-11038.
[8] Santana, K.B., de Almeida, A.F., Souza, V.L., Mangabeira, P.A.O., Silva, D., da, C., Gomes, F.P., Dutruch, L. and Loguercio, L.L. (2012) Physiological Analyses of Genipa americana L. Reveals a Tree with Ability as Phytostabilizer and Rhizofilterer of Chromium Ions for Phytoremediation of Polluted Watersheds. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 80, 35-42.
[9] Stingu, A., Volf, I., Popa, V.I. and Gostin, I. (2012) New Approaches Concerning the Utilisation of Natural Ammendments in Cadmium Phytoremediation. Industrial Crops Products, 35, 53-60.
[10] Witters, N., Mendelsohn, R.O., Slycken, S.V., Weyens, N., Schreurs, E., Meers, E., Tack, F., Carleer, R. and Vangronsveld, J. (2012) Phytoremediation, a Sustainable Remediation Technology? Conclusions from a Case Study. I: Energy Production and Carbon Dioxide Abatement. Biomass and Bioenergy, 39, 454-469.
[11] Haoab, X., Taghavib, S., Xiea, P., Orbachc, M.J., Alwathnanid, H.A., Rensinge, C. and Weia, G. (2013) Phytoremediation of Heavy and Transition Metals Aided by Legume-Rhizobia Symbiosis. International Journal of Phytoremediation, 16,179-202.
[12] Arriagada, C.A., Herrera, M.A. García-Romera, I. and Ocampo, J.A. (2004) Tolerance to Cd of Soybean (Glycine Max) and Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) Inoculated with Arbuscular Mycorrhizal and Saprobe Fungi. Symbiosis, 36, 285-301.
[13] Jambhulkar, H.P. and Jawarkar, A.A. (2009) Assessment of Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals by Different Plant Species Grown on Fly Ash Dump. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 72, 1122-1128.
[14] Almenaie, H.S., Al-Ragon, O., Al-Shatti, A., Mathew, M. and Suresh, N. (2010) Evaluating the Growth Performance of Cassia nodasa and Cassia fistula L. Seedlings Using Different Potting Mixtures. Academic Journal of Plant Sciences, 3, 33-36.
[15] King, J.A. (1988) Some Physical Features of Soil after Opencast Mining. Soil Use Management, 4, 23-30.
[16] Conesa, H.M., Robinson, B.H., Schulin, R. and Nowack, B. (2007) Growth of Lygeum spartum in Acid Mine Tailings: Response of Plants Developed from Seedlings, Rhizomes and at Filed Conditions. Environmental Pollution, 145, 700-707.
[17] Nelson, D.W. and Sommers, L.E. (1982) Total Carbon, Organic Carbon, and Organic Matter. In: Miller, R.H. and Keeney, D.R., Eds., Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2. Chemical and Microbiological Properties, 2nd Edition, American Society of Agronomy, Madison, 539-594.
[18] Okalebo, J.R., Gathua, K.W. and Woomer, P.L. (2002) Laboratory Methods of Soil and Plant Analysis. A Working Manual. 2nd Edition, Tropical Soil Fertility and Programme, Nairobi.
[19] Bremner, J.M. and Mulvaney, C.S. (1982) Nitrogen-Total. In: Page, A.L., Miller, R.H. and Keeney, D.R., Eds., Methods of Soil Analysis, 2nd Edition, Agronomy Monograph 9, 595-624.
[20] Knudsen, D. and Beegle, D. (1988) Recommended Phosphorous Tests. In: Dahnke, Ed., Recommended Chemical Soil Tests Procedures for North Central Region, North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station, Fargo, 12-15.
[21] Burger, D.M. and Delitti, W.B.C. (2008) Allometric Models for Estimating the Phytomass of a Secondary Atlantic Forest Area of Southern-Eastern Brazil. Biota Neotropica, 8, 131-136.
[22] Nyakudya, I.W., Jimu, L., Katsvanga, C.A.T. and Dafana, M. (2011) Comparative Analysis of the Early Growth Performance of Indigenous Acacia Species in Revegetating Trojan Nickel Mine Tailings in Zimbabwe. African Journal of Environmental Science & Technology, 5, 218-227.
[23] Fisher, R.A. (1921) Some Remarks on the Methods Formulated in a Recent Article on “The Quantitative Analysis of Plant Growth”. Annals of Applied Biology, 7, 367-372.
[24] R Development Core Team (2011) R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna.
[25] Bates, D., Maechler, M. and Bolker, B. (2011) lme4: Linear Mixed-Effects Models Using S4 Classes.
[26] ERDB (2011) A Research Compendium for Mining and Volcanic Debris-Laden Areas. Department of Environment and Natural Resources, UPLB-CFNR, Los Banos, Philippines.
[27] Sheoran, V., Sheoran, A.S. and Poonia, P. (2010) Soil Reclamation of Abandoned Mine Land by Revegetation: A Review. International Journal of Soil, Sediment and Water, 3, 1-20.
[28] Brady, N.C. and Weil, R.R. (2002) The Nature and Properties of Soils. 13th Edition, Prentice Hall, New Jersey.
[29] Balasundaran, M. and Ali, M.I. (1987) Root Nodulation Potentialities of Leucaena lecocephala in KERALA. Kerala Forest Resarch Institute, Peechi.
[30] Parrotta, J.A. (1992) Fabaceae (Bean Family): Leucaena lecocephala (Lam.) de wit. International Institute of Tropical Forestry, USDA Forest Service.
[31] Takuathung, C.N., Pipatwattanakul, D. and Bhumibhamon, S. (2012) Provenance Variation in Seed Morphometric Traits and Growth Performance of Senna siamea (Lam.) Erwin et Barneby at Lad Krating Plantation, Chachoengsao Province, Thailand. Kasetsart. Journal of Natural Science, 46, 394-407.
[32] Fisher, R. and Binkley, D. (2000) Ecology and Management of Forest Soils. John Wiley and Sons Inc., Hoboken, 489.
[33] Marschner, H. (1991) Mechanisms of Adaptation of Plants to Acid Soils. In: Wright, R.J., Baligar, V.C. and Murrmann, R.P., Eds., Plant Soil Interactions at Low pH, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 683-702.
[34] Singh, N. and Ma, L.Q. (2003) Phytoremediation: Methods and Reviews. Methods in Biotechnology, Vol. 23, Humana Press Inc., Totowa.
[35] Singh, J. and Kalamdhad, A.S. (2013) Chemical Speciation of Heavy Metals in Compost and Compost Ammended Soil—A Review. International Journal of Environmental Engineering Research, 2, 27-37.
[36] Tanvir, M.A. and Siddiqui, M.T. (2010) Growth Perfomance and Cadmium (Cd) Uptake by Populus deltoides as Irrigated by Urban Wastewater. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 47, 235-240.
[37] Taylor, R.G., Mileham, L., Tindimugaya, C. and Mwebembezi, L. (2009) Recent Gracial Recession and Its Impact on Alpine Riverflow in the Rwenzori Mountains in Uganda. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 55, 205-213.
[38] Hossain, K.M. (1999) Senna siamea: A Widely Used Legume Tree. A Quick Guide to Multipurpose Trees from around the World. Fact Sheet 99-04. Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, Chittagong University, Chittagong.
[39] Zarinkamar, F., Saderi, Z. and Soleimanpour, S. (2013) Excluder Strategies in Response to Pb Toxicity in Matricaria chamomilla. Environment and Ecology Research, 1, 1-11.
[40] Biermacki, M. and Lovett-Doust, J. (2002) Developmental Shifts in Watermelon Growth and Reproduction Caused by the Squash Bug, Anasa tristis. New Physiologist, 155, 265-273.
[41] Huillier, L.L., Auzac, J.D., Durand, M. and Michaud-Ferriere, N. (1996) Nickel Effects on Two Maize (Zea mays) Cultivars: Growth, Structure, Nickel Concentration, and Localization. Canadian Journal of Botany, 74, 1547-1554.
[42] Jiang, W., Liu, D. and Liu, X. (2001) Effects of Copper on Root Growth, Cell Division, and Nucleolus of Zea mays. Biologia Plantarum, 44, 105-109.
[43] Liu, D., Jiang, W. and Gao, X. (2003) Effects of Cadmium on Root Growth, Cell Division and Nucleoli in Root Tip Cells of Garlic. Biologia Plantarum, 47, 79-83.
[44] Radha, J., Srivastava, S., Solmon, S., Srivastava, A.K. and Chandra, A. (2010) Impact of Excess Zinc on Growth Parameters, Cell Division, Nutrient Accumulation, Photosynthetic Pigments and Oxidative Stress of Sugar Cane (Saccharum spp.). Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 32, 979-986.
[45] Sivasankar, R., Kalaikandhan, R. and Vijayarengan, P. (2012) Phytoremediation Capability of Four Plant Species under Zinc Stress. International Journal of Research in Environmental Science and Technology, 2, 1-9.
[46] Ivanov, V.B., Bystrova, E.I., Obroucheva, N.V., Antipova, O.V., Sobotik, M. and Bergmann, H. (1998) Growth Response of Barley Roots as an Indicator of Lead-Toxic Effects. Angewandte Botanik, 72, 140-143.
[47] Fagbola, O., Osonubi, O. and Mulongoy, K. (1998) Contribution of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) Fungi and Hedgerow Trees to the Yield and Nutrient Uptake of Cassava in an Alley-Cropping System. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge, 131, 79-85.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.