Accession × Treatment Interaction, Variability and Correlation Studies of Pepper (Capsicum spp.) under the Influence of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Fungus (Glomus clarum) and Cow Dung


The field experiment was conducted in the Department of Botany, University of Ibadan, Nigeria between September to December 2012. Four accessions of pepper (Capsicum spp.), obtained from Moor plantation in Ibadan and LUTH (Lagos University Teaching Hospital) vegetable garden, Idi-Araba Lagos were evaluated to investigate the morpho-agronomic variability and interaction of accession × treatment × days after transplant in treatment combinations of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus clarum) and cowdung. The experiment was a 4 × 4 factorial arrangement laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The combined analysis of variance showed significant accession, treatment, days after transplant, and accession × treatment interactive effect for most of the growth characters at P < 0.01 and P < 0.05. The result also showed significant difference in yield related traits of fruits for pepper accessions. The number of leaves per plant was significant and positively associated with plant height (r = 0.516; P < 0.05), and highly significant and positively correlated with the number of branches (r = 0.836; P < 0.01), but negative and non-significantly related with stem girth. Glomus clarum treated plants responded significantly with higher growth and yield. It suggested that G. clarum treatment had higher potential in influencing crop yield compared to cowdung and untreated plants. This study further explored the relationship between G.

Share and Cite:

Olawuyi, O. , Jonathan, S. , Babatunde, F. , Babalola, B. , Yaya, O. , Agbolade, J. , Aina, D. and Egun, C. (2014) Accession × Treatment Interaction, Variability and Correlation Studies of Pepper (Capsicum spp.) under the Influence of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Fungus (Glomus clarum) and Cow Dung. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 5, 683-690. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2014.55083.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] McLeod, E. (1982) Feed the Soil. Organic Agriculture Research Institute, Graton, 209.
[2] Smith, P.G., Villalon, B. and Villa, P.L (1987) Horticultural Classification of Peppers Grown in the United States. HortScience, 22, 11-13.
[3] Aguilar-Melendez, A., Morrell, P.L., Roose, M.L and Seung-Chul, Kim (2009) Genetic Diversity and Structure in Semiwild and Domesticated Chiles (Capsicum annum; Solanaceae) from Mexico. American Journal of Botany, 96, 1190-1202.
[4] Yanney-Wilson, J. (1960) Capsicum Peppers of West Africa. J. West Afr. Sci. Assoc, 6, 78-95.
[5] Hatutale, G. (2010) The Effect of Plant Population and Mulching on Green Pepper (Capsicum annum L.) Production under Irrigation. M.Sc. Dissertation, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein.
[6] Busson, F. (1965) Plantes Alimentaires de l’Ouest Africain. Etude Botanique, Biologique et Chimique. (Food Plants of West Africa. A Botanical, Biological and Chemical Study.) M. Leconte, Marseille, 568 p.
[7] Kloos, H. and McCullough, F.S. (1987) Plant Molluscicides. Journal of Medicinal Plant Research, 46, 195-209.
[8] Ainslie, J. (1937) A List of Plants used in Native Medicine in Nigeria. Imperial Forestry Institute, Paper 1937 No. 7.
[9] Dalziel, J.M. (1937) The Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa. (Being an Appendix to “The flora of West Tropical Africa.”). Crown Agents for the Colonies, London, (2nd Rep.) (1st Reprint, 1948; End Reprint, 1955) 612.
[10] Irvine (1956) The Edible Cultivated and Semi-Cultivated Leaves of West Africa. Materiae Vegetabiles, 2, 35-42.
[11] Bouque Feticheurs, A. (1969) Medicines Traditionalles du Congo (Brazzaville). O.R.S.T.O.M., Memoire, 1-100.
[12] McComb, A.L. and Griffith, J.E. (1946) Growth Stimulation and Phosphorus Absorption of Mycorrhizal and Non-Mycorrhizal Northern Whitepine and Douglas-Fir Seedlings in Relation to Fertilizer Treatment. Plant Physiology, 21, 11-17.
[13] Olawuyi, O.J., Babatunde, F.E., Akinbode, A.O., Odebode, A.C. and Olakojo, S.A. (2011) Influence of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and NPK Fertilizer on the Productivity of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus). International Journal of Organic Agriculture Research and Development, 3, 22-31.
[14] Jonathan, S.G., Olawuyi, O.J. and Babalola, B.J. (2013) Evaluation of Okra Accessions in Treatment Combinations of Mycorrhiza Fungus, Mushroom Compost and Poultry Manure. Proceedings of Tropentag Conference on Agricultural Development within the Rural-Urban Continuum, Stuttgart, Hohenheim.
[15] Graham, J.H. (1986) Citrus Mycorrhizae: Potential Benefits and Interactions with Pathogens. Hort Science, 21, 1302-1306.
[16] Allen, E.B. and Allen, M.F. (1986) Water Relations of Xeric Grasses in the Field: Interactions of Mycorrhizas and Competition. New PhytologistI, 104, 559-571.
[17] Osonubi, O., Mulongoy, K., Awotoye, O.O., Atayese, M.O. and Okali, D.U.U. (1991) Effects of Ectomycorrhizal and Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Drought Tolerance of Four Leguminous Woody Seedlings. Plant and Soil, 136, 131-143.
[18] Olawuyi, O.J., Odebode, A.C., Oyewole, I.O., Akanmu, A.O. and Afolabi, O. (2013) Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Pythium aphanidermatum Causing Foot Rot Disease on Pawpaw (Carica papaya L.). Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 47, 185-193.
[19] Osonubi, O. (1989) Osmotic Adjustment in Mycorrhizal Gmelina arborea Roxb. Seedlings. Functional Ecology, 3, 143-151.
[20] Odebode, A.C., Ladoye, A.O. and Osonubi, O. (1995) Influence of Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Disease Severity of Pepper and Tomato Caused by Sclerotium rolfsii. Journal of Science Research, 2, 49-52.
[21] Olawuyi, O.J, Odebode, A.C, Olakojo, S.A. and Adesoye, A.I. (2011) Host-Parasite Relationship of Maize (Zea mays L.) and Striga lutea (lour) as Influenced by Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Fungi. Journal of Science Research, 10, 186-198.
[22] Olawuyi, O.J, Ezekiel-Adewoyi, D.T., Odebode, A.C., Aina, D.A. and Esenbamen, G.E. (2012)Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (Glomus clarum) and Organomineral Fertilizer on Growth and Yield Performance of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus). African Journal of Plant Science, 6, 84-88.
[23] Fapohunda, S.O, Olawuyi, O.J., Bello, O.B. and Lawal, T. (2013) Comparative Shoot Response of Two Nigeria Crops to Glomus clarum and Other Fertilizers. Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 3, 280-285.
[24] Singh, P. and Narayanan, S.S. (1993) Biometrical Techniques in Plant Breeding. New Delhi, India: Kalyani Publishers.
[25] Kandasamy, K.I. (1990) An in Vitro Study of the Interactions between the Pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp dioscoreae and Its Host Dioscorea yams. MSc. Thesis, University of London, London.
[26] Nwangburuka, C.C., Olawuyi, O.J., Oyekale, K., Ogunwenmo, K.O., Denton, O.A. and Nwankwo, E. (2012) Growth and Yield Response of Corchorus olitorius in the Treatment of Arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM), Poultry Manure (PM), Combination of AM-PM and Inorganic Fertilizer (NPK). Advances in Applied Science Research, 3, 1466-1471.
[27] Blokhuis, W.A. (1993) Vertisols in the Central Clay Plain of the Sudan. Thesis, Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen.
[28] Smith, S.E. and Smith, F.A. (1990) Structure and Function of the Interfaces in Biotrophic Symbioses as They Relate to Nutrient Transport. New Phytologist, 114, 1-38.
[29] Jensen, A. and Jakosen, I. (1980) The Occurance of Vesicular-Arbusular Mycorrhizal in Barley and Wheat Grown in Some Danish Soils with Different Fertilizer Treatments. Plants and Soil, 55, 403-404.
[30] Ahmed, S.B.M. and Ahmed, A.F. (2012) Genotype × Season Interaction and Characters Association of SOME SESAME (Sesamum indicum L.) Genotypes under Rain-Fed Conditions of Sudan. African Journal of Plant Science, 6, 39-42.
[31] Olawuyi, O.J., Odebode, A.C. and Olakojo, S.A. (2013) Genotype × Concentration × Mycorrhiza Interaction on Early Maturing Maize under Striga lutea in Nigeria. Proceedings of conference on International Research on Food Security, Natural Resources Management and Rural Development, Stuttgart, 17-19 September 2013.
[32] Olawuyi, O.J., Odebode, A.C. and Olakojo, S.A. (2013) Genotype × Treatment × Concentration Interaction and Character Association of Maize (Zea mays L) under Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Fungi and Striga lutea Lour. Proceedings of the 37th Annual Conference of the Genetics Society of Nigeria (GSN), Lafia, 20-24 October 2013, 210-219.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.