Evaluation of Available Phosphorus by Soil Test Methods in an Acidic Soil Incubated with Different Levels of Lime and Phosphorus


An incubation study was conducted in laboratory to determine the effect of lime (L) as CaCO3 and phosphorus (P) as TSP on soil pH and available soil P in an acid soil. Four rates of L equivalent to 0, 1, 2 and 3 ton CaCO3 ha-1 and four rates of P equivalent to 0, 25, 50 and 75 mg P kg-1 were applied in combinations as treatments. The soil was incubated at field capacity for 8 weeks (wk) after which they were extracted using NaHCO3 (Olsen), Mehlich-3, Kelowna and Bray & Kurtz-1 extractants and soil pH was determined. Lime significantly (P < 0.001) increased soil pH. Phosphorus decreased it, though not significantly. Both L and P had significant effects (P < 0.001) on P availability irrespective of extractants used. Two ton CaCO3 plus 75 mg P kg-1 gave the highest available phosphorus. Mehlich-3 method extracted the largest amount of P (14.54 - 67.35 mg·kg-1) while Olsen extracted the smallest amount (3.25 - 32.77 mg·kg-1). The mean extractable P in soils was found to be in the order of Olsen 2 = 0.87 to 0.95).

Share and Cite:

Sarker, A. , Kashem, M. , Osman, K. , Hossain, I. and Ahmed, F. (2014) Evaluation of Available Phosphorus by Soil Test Methods in an Acidic Soil Incubated with Different Levels of Lime and Phosphorus. Open Journal of Soil Science, 4, 103-108. doi: 10.4236/ojss.2014.43014.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Silva, F.C. and van Raij, B. (1999) Phosphorus Availability Assessed by Different Extractants. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, 34, 267-288.
[2] Olsen, S.R., Cole, C.V. and Watanabe, F.S. (1954) Estimation of Available Phosphorus in Soils by Extraction with Sodium Bicarbonate. USDA Circular No. 939, US Government Printing Office, Washington DC.
[3] Mehlich, A. (1984) Mehlich 3 Soil Test Extractants: A Modification of Mehlich 2 Extractant. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 15, 1409-1415.
[4] Van Lierop, W. (1988) Determination of Available Phosphorus in Acid and Calcareous Soils with Kelowna MultipleElement Extractant. Soil Science, 146, 284-291.
[5] Van der Paaw, F. (1971) An Effective Water Extraction Method for the Determination of Plant Available Phosphorus. Plant and Soil, 34, 467-481. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01372799
[6] Sims, J.T. (2000) Soil Test Phosphorus: Olsen P. In: Pierzynski, G.M., Ed., Methods for Phosphorus Analysis for Soils, Sediments, Residuals and Water, Kansas State University, Manhttan, 20-21.
[7] McDowell, R.W. and Sharpley, A.N. (2001) Phosphorus Losses in Subsurface Flow before and after Manure Application to Intensively Farmed Land. Science of the Total Environment, 278, 113-125.
[8] Fageria, N.K., Baligar, V.C. and Wright, R.J. (1991) Influence of Phosphate Rock Sources and Rates on Rice and Common Bean Production in an Oxisol. In: Wright, R.J., Baligar, V.C. and Murrmann, R.P., Eds., Plant and Soil Interaction at Low pH, Kluwer Academic Publisher, Norwell, 539-546. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-3438-5_61
[9] Sanchez, P.A. and Uehara, G. (1980) Management Considerations for Acid Soils with High Phosphorus Fixation Capacity. In: Khasawneh, F.E., Sample, E.C. and Kamprath, E.J., Eds., The Role of Phosphorus in Agriculture, American Society of Agronomy, Madison, 471-514.
[10] Sumner, W.E. (1979) Response of Alfalfa and Sorghum to Lime and P on Highly Weathered Soils. Agronomy Journal, 71, 763-766. http://dx.doi.org/10.2134/agronj1979.00021962007100050014x
[11] Amarasiri, S.L. and Olsen, S.R. (197) Liming as Related to Solubility of P and Plant Growth in an Acid Tropical Soil. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 37, 716-721.
[12] Janghorbani, M., Roberts, S. and Jackson, T.L. (1975) Relationship of Exchangeable Acidity to Yield and Chemical Composition of Alfalfa. Agronomy Journal, 67, 350-354.
[13] Jones, J.P. and Fox, R.L. (1978) Phosphorus Nutrition of Plants Influenced by Manganese and Aluminium Uptake from an Oxisol. Soil Science, 126, 230-236. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00010694-197810000-00005
[14] Walkley, A. and Black, I.A. (1934) An Examination of Degtjareff Method for Determining Soil Organic Matter and a Proposed Modification of the Chromic Acid Titration Method. Soil Science, 37, 29-38.
[15] Soil Survey Laboratory Staff (1992) Soil Survey Laboratory Methods Manual. Soil Survey Laboratory Investigations Report No. 42, USDA-SCS, Washington DC.
[16] Bouyoucos, G.J. (1962) Hydrometer Method Improved for Making Particle Size Analysis of Soils. Agronomy Journal, 54, 464-465. http://dx.doi.org/10.2134/agronj1962.00021962005400050028x
[17] Murphy, J. and Riley, J.P. (1962) A Modified Single Solution Methods for the Determination of Available Phosphate in Natural Water. Analytica Chimica Acta, 27, 31-36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0003-2670(00)88444-5
[18] Bray, R.H. and Kurtz, L.T. (1945) Determination of Total Organic and Available Forms of Phosphorus in Soils. Soil Science, 59, 39-45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00010694-194501000-00006
[19] Minitab. Inc. (1996) Minitab User Guide Release 11. Minitab, State College.
[20] Oluwatoyinbo, F.I., Akande, M.O. and Adediran, J.A. (2005) Response of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) to Lime and Phosphorus Fertilization in An Acid Soil. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 1, 178-183.
[21] Kamprath, E.J. (1984) Crop Response to Lime in the Tropics. In: Adams, F., Ed., Soil Acidity and Liming, 2nd Edition, Agronomy Monograph 12, Agronomy and Soil Science Society of America, Madison, 349-368.
[22] Buresh, R.J., Smithson, P.C. and Hellums, D.T. (1997) Building Soil Phosphorus Capital in Africa. In: Buresh, R.J., Sanchez, P.A. and Calhoun, F., Eds., Replenishing Soil Fertility in Africa, SSSA Special Publication No.51, Madison Wisconsin, 111-149.
[23] Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (2000) Relevance of Soil Testing to Agriculture and the Environment. CAST, Ames, 1-12.
[24] Zhang, M., Wright, R., Heaney, D. and Vanderwel, D. (2004) Comparison of Different Phosphorus Extraction and Determination Methods Using Manured Soils. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 84, 469-475.
[25] Indiati, R., Neri, U., Magyar, M. and Csatho, P. (2002) Effect of Time, Fertilizer P Sources and Fertilization Systems on Phosphorus Extractability of Two Soils from Hungary. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 33, 445-560.

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.