Share This Article:

Epidemiological Studies on the Relationship between PTSD Symptoms and Circadian Typology and Mental/Sleep Health of Young People Who Suffered a Natural Disaster, Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:700KB) PP. 338-350
DOI: 10.4236/ns.2014.65035    3,035 Downloads   4,074 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

This study aims, first, to determine the relationship between Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and current circadian typology and sleep habits of adults who experienced the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake in their childhood in January 1995. An integrated questionnaire was administered to 275 university students (females: 173, males: 93, unknown: 9) aged 19 - 37 (mean age: 21.9 years) in Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. The questionnaire consisted of basic questions about attributes, questions on sleep habits and sleep quality (Monroe’s sleep quality index), the Torsvall-?kerstedt Diurnal Type Scale and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) to obtain PTSD scores. Participants who scored 25 or more in the IES-R were placed in a high-traumatic group (HTG) and those who scored less than 25 were placed in a low-traumatic group (LTG). HTG participants exhibited significantly worse sleep quality than LTG participants (p < 0.001). Although there was no significant difference in sleep latency (p > 0.05), HTG participants woke more frequently during sleep (p < 0.001) and had more difficulty falling asleep (p = 0.001) than LHG participants. Significantly more LTG participants fell asleep easily and slept deeply than HTG participants (p = 0.005, p = 0.011). Only among females, HTG participants were more evening-typed than LTG participants (p = 0.035). These results suggest that people who suffered a disaster in childhood and currently have PTSD have difficulty achieving high sleep quality. Evening-type lifestyles may reinforce the symptoms of PTSD. The study aims, second, to examine the effects of intervention for one month using a leaflet to promote the morning-typed life for persons who suffered natural disaster entitled “Go to bed early, Get up early and Do not forget to have a breakfast for getting three benefits!”. Only one person was over the cutoff point (between 24 and 25) before intervention. This high-traumatic person’s comprehensive sleep health tended to be improved through the intervention (p = 0.052). Such intervention to improve their quality of sleep and promote a morning-typed lifestyle may be an effective way to reduce PTSD symptoms.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Wada, K. , Kuroda, H. , Nakade, M. , Takeuchi, H. and Harada, T. (2014) Epidemiological Studies on the Relationship between PTSD Symptoms and Circadian Typology and Mental/Sleep Health of Young People Who Suffered a Natural Disaster, Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake. Natural Science, 6, 338-350. doi: 10.4236/ns.2014.65035.

References

[1] Fire and Disaster Management Agency (2006) Fixed Report about the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake.
[2] Bland, S.H., O’Leary, E.S., Farinaro, E., Jossa, F., Krogh, V. and Violanti, J.M. (1997) Social Network Disturbances and Psychological Distress Following Earthquake Evacuation. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 185, 188-194.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005053-199703000-00008
[3] Najarian, L.M., Goenjian, A.K., Pelcovitz, D., Mandel, F. and Najarian, B (1996) Relocation after a Disaster: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Armenia after the Earthquake. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 374-383. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199603000-00020
[4] Chan, C.L.W., Wang, C.-W., Qu, Z., Lu, B.Q., Ran, M.-S., Ho, A.H.Y., Yuan, Y., Zhang, B.Q., Wang, X. and Zhang, X. (2011) Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms among Adult Survivors of the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake in China. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 24, 295-302.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jts.20645
[5] Kato, H., Asukai, N., Miyake, Y., Minakawa, K. and Nishiyama, A. (1996) Post Traumatic Symptoms among Younger and Elderly Evacuees in the Early Stages Following the 1995 Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake in Japan. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 93, 477-481. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0447.1996.tb10680.x
[6] Tsai, K.Y., Chou, P., Chou, F.H.-C., Su, T.T.-P., Lin, S.-C., Lu, M.-K., Ou-Yang, W.-C., Su, C.-Y., Chao, S.-S., Huang, M.-W., Wu, H.-C., Sun, W.-J., Su, S.-F. and Chen, M.-C. (2007) Three-Year Follow-Up of the Relationship between Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Quality of Life among Earthquake Survivors in Yu-Chi, Taiwan. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 41, 90-96.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2005.10.004
[7] Livanou, M., Kasvilis, Y., Basoglu, M., Mytskidou, P., Sotiropoulou, V., Spanea, E., Mitsopoulou, T. and Voutsa, N. (2005) Earthquake-Related Psychological Distress and Associated Factors 4 Years after the Parnitha Earthquake in Greece. European Psychiatry, 20, 137-144.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpsy.2004.06.025
[8] Harada, T. (2008) Diurnal Rhythms and Sleep Habits of Infants, Children and Elder Students Aged 2-25yrs—Focusing on Life Environmental Factors Which Include Ones Related to 24 hrs Commercialization Society. Chronobiology, 14, 36-43.
[9] Aschoff, J., Gerecke, U. and Wever, R. (1967) Desynchronization of Human Circadian Rhythms. Japanese Journal of Physiology, 17, 450-457. http://dx.doi.org/10.2170/jjphysiol.17.450
[10] Mecacci, L. and Zani, A. (1983) Morningness-Eveningness Preferences and Sleep-Waking Diary Data of Morning and Evening Types in Student and Worker Samples. Ergonomics, 26, 1147-1153.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00140138308963450
[11] Hayashi, M. and Hori, T. (1987) Survey on a Sleep Habits for University and High School Students. Hiroshima University Faculty of Integrated Arts and Sciences Bulletin III, 11, 53-63.
[12] Tanaka, H., Hayashi, M. and Hori, T. (1997) The Developmental Feature of the Sleep Problems in Adolescence: The Approach for the Application to Educational Stage. Memoirs of the Faculty of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Hiroshima University, 23, 141-154.
[13] Ishihara, K., Miyake, S., Miyashita, A. and Miyata, Y. (1988) Comparisons of Sleep-Wake Habits of Morning and Evening Types in Japanese Worker Sample. Journal of Human Ergology, 17, 111-118.
[14] Harada, T. and Takeuchi, H. (2001) Epidemiological Study on Students’ Daily Rhythms and Sleeping Habits. Journal Japanese Society for Chronobiology, 7, 36-46.
[15] Harada, T. and Takeuchi, H. (2011) Chapter 25: Rhythm in Life Habit of Japanese Infants, Children and Students. In: Shibata, S., Ed., Chronobiology and Industrial Applications, CMC Co. Ltd., Tokyo, 204-217.
[16] Harada, T. (2004) Current Evening Typed Life and Mental Health of Japanese Children. Journal of Child Health, 63, 202-209.
[17] Klein, E., Koren, D., Arnon, I. and Lavie, P. (2002) No Evidence of Sleep Disturbance in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Polysomnographic Study in Injured Victims of Traffic Accidents. Israel Journal of Psychiatry & Related Sciences, 39, 3-10.
[18] Wang, L., Zhang, J., Shi, Z., Zhou, M., Huang, D. and Liu, P. (2011) Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Assessed by the Impact of Event Scale-Revised in Chinese Earthquake Victims: Examining Factor Structure and Its Stability across Sex. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 25, 369-375.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2010.10.011
[19] Germain, A., Shear, M.K., Hall, M. and Buysse, D.J. (2007) Effects of a Brief Behavioral Treatment for PTSD-Related Sleep Disturbances: A Pilot Study. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 627-632.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2006.04.009
[20] Mellman, T.A., Kumar, A., Kulick-Bell, R., Kumar, M. and Nolan, B. (1995) Nocturnal/Daytime Urine Noradrenergic Measures and Sleep in Combat-Related PTSD. Biological Psychiatry, 38, 174-179.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0006-3223(94)00238-X
[21] Kuroda, H., Wada, K., Takeuchi, H. and Harada, T. (2013) PTSD Score, Circadian Typology and Sleep Habits of People Who Experienced the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake 17 Years Ago. Psychology, 4, 106-110.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/psych.2013.42015
[22] Torsvall, L. and Akerstedt, T. (1980) A Diurnal Type Scale: Construction, Consistency and Validation in Shift Work. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, 6, 283-290. http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.2608
[23] Kasugai, N. (1999) Anxiety Disorders and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Psychiatry, 28, 171-177.
[24] Wilson, J.P. and Keane, T.M. (2004) Assessing Psychological Trauma and PTSD. 2nd Edition, The Guilford Press, New York, 668.
[25] Harada, T., Inoue, M., Takeuchi, H., Watanabe, N., Hamada, M., Kadota, G. and Yamashita, Y. (1998) Study on Diurnal Rhythms in the Life of Japanese University, Junior High and Elementary School Students including MorningnessEveningness Preference. Bulletin of the Faculty of Education, Kochi University, 56, 1-91.
[26] Takeuchi, H., Hino, N., Iwanaga, A., Hino, N., Matsuoka, A. and Harada, T. (2001) Light Conditions during Sleep Period and Sleep-Related Lifestyle in Japanese Students. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 55, 221-222.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1440-1819.2001.00832.x
[27] Takeuchi, H., Inoue, M., Watanabe, N., Yamashita, Y., Hamada, M., Kadota, G. and Harada, T. (2001) Parental Enforcement of Bedtime during Childhood Results in Japanese Junior High School Students Preferring Morningness to Eveningness. Chronobiology International, 18, 823-829. http://dx.doi.org/10.1081/CBI-100107517
[28] Harada, T., Morikuni, M., Yoshii, S., Yamashita, Y. and Takeuchi, H. (2002) Usage of Mobile Phone in the Evening or at Night Makes Japanese Students Evening-Typed and Night Sleep Uncomfortable. Sleep and Hypnosis, 4, 150-154.
[29] Takeuchi, H., Oishi, T. and Harada, T. (2003) Morningness-Eveningness Preference, and Mental and Physical Symptoms during the Menstrual Cycle of Japanese Junior High School Students. Sleep and Biological Rhythms, 1, 245-247.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1446-9235.2003.00042.x
[30] Shinomiya, H., Takeuchi, H., Martoni, M. Natale, V. and Harada, T. (2004) Comparative Study on Circadian Typology of Japanese and Italian Students Aged 12 18 Years. Sleep and Biological Rhythms, 2, 93-95.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1479-8425.2003.00075.x
[31] Harada, T., Hirotani, M., Maeda, M., Nomura, H. and Takeuchi, H. (2007) Correlation between Breakfast Tryptophan Content and Morningness-Eveningness in Japanese Infants and Students Aged 0-15 Years. Journal of Physiological Anthropology, 26, 201-207.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2114/jpa2.26.201
[32] Portaluppi, F., Smolensky, M.H. and Touitou, Y. (2010) Effects and Methods for Biological Rhythm Research on Animals and Human Beings. Chronobiology International, 27, 1911-1929.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/07420528.2010.516381
[33] Kun, P., Tong, X., Liu, Y., Pei, X. and Luo, H. (2013) What Are the Determinants of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Age, Gender, Ethnicity or Other? Evidence from 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake. Public Health, 127, 644-652.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2013.04.018
[34] Jia, Z., Tian, W., Liu, W., Cao, Y., Yan, J. and Shun, Z. (2010) Are the Elderly More Vulnerable to Psychological Impact of Natural Disaster? A Population-Based Survey of Adult Survivors of the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake. BMC Public Health, 10, 172. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-10-172
[35] Davidson, J.R., Hughes, D., Blazer, D.G. and George, L.K. (1991) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in the Community: An Epidemiological Study. Psychological Medicine, 21, 713-721. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291700022352
[36] Kessler, R.C., Sonnega, A., Bromet, E., Hughes, M. and Nelson, C.B. (1995) Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey. JAMA Psychiatry, 52, 1048-1060.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1995.03950240066012
[37] Karni, A., Tanne, D., Rubenstein, B.S., Askenasy, J.J. and Sagi, D. (1994) Dependence on REM Sleep of Overnight Improvement of a Perceptual Skill. Science, 265, 679-682.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.8036518
[38] Hornung, O.P., Regen, F., Danker-Hopfe, H., Schredl, M. and Heuser, I. (2007) The Relationship between REM Sleep and Memory Consolidation in old Age and Effects of Cholinergic Medication. Biological Psychiatry, 61, 750-757.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2006.08.034
[39] Nakade, M., Takeuchi, H., Taniwaki, N., Noji, T. and Harada, T. (2009) An Integrated Effect of Protein Intake at Breakfast and Morning Exposure to Sunlight on the Circadian Typology in Japanese Infants Aged 2-6 Years. Journal of Physiological Anthropology, 28, 239-245.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2114/jpa2.28.239
[40] Nakade, M., Akimitsu, O., Wada, K., Krejci, M., Noji, T., Taniwaki, N., Takeuchi, H. and Harada, T. (2012) Can Breakfast Tryptophan and Vitamin B6 Intake and Morning Exposure to Sunlight Promote Morning-Typology in Young Children Aged 2-6 Years? Journal of Physiological Anthropology, 31, 11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1880-6805-31-11
[41] Wada, K., Yata, S., Akimitsu, O., Krejci, M., Noji, T., Nakade, M., Takeuchi, H. and Harada, T. (2013) A TryptophanRich Breakfast and Exposure to Light with Low Color Temperature at Night Improve Sleep and Salivary Melatonin Level in Japanese Students. Journal of Circadian Rhythms, 11, 4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1740-3391-11-4
[42] Honma, K. and Honma, S. (1998) A Human Phase-Response Curve for Bright Light Pulses. Japanese Journal of Psychiatry and Neurology, 42, 167-168.
[43] Chan, C.L.W., Wang, C.W., Qu, Z., Lu, B.Q., Ran, M.S., Ho, A.H.Y., Yuan, Y., Zhang, B.Q., Wang, X. and Zhang, X. (2011) Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms among Adult Survivors of the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake in China. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 24, 295-302.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jts.20645
[44] Pekovic, V., Seff, L. and Rothman, M.B. (2007) Planning for and Responding to Special Needs of Elders in Natural Disasters. Generations, 31, 37-41.
[45] Toyabe, S., Shioiri, T., Kuwabara, H., Endoh, T., Tanabe, N., Someya, T. and Akazawa. K. (2006) Impaired Psychological Recovery in the Elderly after the Niigata-Chuetsu Earthquake in Japan: A Population-Based Study. BMC Public Health, 6, 230. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-6-230

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.