An in Vitro Study of Microleakage Comparing Total-Etch with Bonding Resin and Self-Etch Adhesive Luting Cements for All-Ceramic Crowns


Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the dye leakage present following cementation of all-ceramic crowns with 7 currently used cements to compare total-etch (TE) with dentine bonding agent (DBA) and self-etch (SE) systems. Methods: Forty-two Authentic? crowns were fabricated and cemented onto extracted human teeth using 7 currently available cements (2 two-stage adhesives (TE + DBA): Panavia 21 Kuraray; Paracore, Coltene Whaledent and 5 all-in-one adhesives (SE): MaxCem Kerr; Panavia F2.0 Kuraray; RelyX Unicem 3MEspe; seT SDI). Following storage in water and thermal cycling, the teeth were exposed to dye, sectioned and examined under confocal microscopy. Leakage was determined by two blinded examiners and scoring was carried out on a scale of 0 - 8 per tooth (0 = no leakage, 8 complete leakage across the section). One overall reading was obtained per tooth with 6 teeth per material. Results: The results showed a wide range of scores between the different cements. Only a few specimens which used TE + DBA showed slight marginal leakage: Paracore (mean score 0 ± 0) and Panavia 21 (0.3 ± 0.5). The majority of specimens using SE showed leakage: RelyX Unicem (0.8 ± 0.8), SmartCem (1.7 ± 2.1), MaxCem (3.2 ± 1.7), Panavia F2.0 (4.5 ± 2.4) then seT (5.2 ± 2.5). Statistical analysis was carried out showing that Paracore and Panavia 21 were significantly less prone to leakage than MaxCem, (P = 0.002) and seT (P < 0.001). Conclusion: In conclusion, the choice of luting cement is important in reducing dye leakage. This study strongly favours the use of a TE with separate adhesive system placed prior to the composite luting resin.

Share and Cite:

Millar, B. and Deb, S. (2014) An in Vitro Study of Microleakage Comparing Total-Etch with Bonding Resin and Self-Etch Adhesive Luting Cements for All-Ceramic Crowns. Open Journal of Stomatology, 4, 126-134. doi: 10.4236/ojst.2014.43020.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Rath, C., Sharpling, W.D. and Millar, B.J. (2010) Review of the Provision of Crowns by Dentists in Ireland. Journal of the Irish Dental Association, 56, 178-185.
[2] Land, M.F. and Hopp, C.D. (2010) Survival Rates of All-Ceramic Systems Differ by Clinical Indication and Fabrication Method. Journal of Evidence Based Dental Practice, 10, 37-38.
[3] Donovan, T.E. (2008) Factors Essential for Successful All-Ceramic Restorations. Journal of the American Dental Association, 139, 14S-18S.
[4] Mitsui, F.H., Peris, A.R., Cavalcanti, A.N., Marchi, G.M. and Pimenta, L.A. (2006) Influence of Thermal and Mechanical Load Cycling on Microtensile Bond Strengths of Total and Self-Etching Adhesive Systems. Operative Dentistry, 31, 240-247.
[5] Turkun, L.S. (2005) The Clinical Performance of One- and Two-Step Self-Etching Adhesive Systems at One Year. Journal of the American Dental Association, 136, 656-664.
[6] Dalton Bittencourt, D., Ezecelevski, I.G., Reis, A., Van Dijken, J.W. and Loguercio, A.D. (2005) An 18-Months’ Evaluation of Self-Etch and Etch & Rinse Adhesive in Non-Carious Cervical Lesions. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, 63, 173-178.
[7] Toman, M., Toksavul, S., Artun?, C., Türkün, M., Schmage, P. and Nergiz, I. (2007) Influence of Luting Agent on the Microleakage of All-Ceramic Crowns. Journal of Adhesive Dentistry, 9, 39-47.
[8] Blatz, M.B., Oppes, S., Chiche, G., Holst, S. and Sadan, A. (2008) Influence of Cementation Technique on Fracture Strength and Leakage of Alumina All-Ceramic Crowns after Cyclic Loading. Quintessence International, 39, 23-32.
[9] Trajtenberg, Caram, S.J. and Kiat-Amnuay, S. (2008) Microleakage of All-Ceramic Crowns Using Self-Etching Resin Luting Agents. Operative Dentistry, 33, 392-399.
[10] Sailer, I., Fehér, A., Filser, F., Gauckler, L.J., Lüthy, H. and H?mmerle, C.H. (2007) Five-Year Clinical Results of Zirconia Frameworks for Posterior Fixed Partial Dentures. International Journal of Prosthodontics, 20, 383-388.
[11] Barcellos, D.C., Batista, G.R., Silva, M.A., Rangel, P.M., Torres, C.R. and Fava, M. (2011) Evaluation of Bond Strength of Self-Adhesive Cements to Dentin with or without Application of Adhesive Systems. Journal of Adhesive Dentistry, 13, 261-265.
[12] Ernst, C.P., Aksoy, E., Stender, E. and Willershausen, B. (2009) Influence of Different Luting Concepts on Long Term Retentive Strength of Zirconia Crowns. American Journal of Dentistry, 22, 122-128.
[13] Chaves, C.A.L., de Melo, R.M., Passos, S.P., Camargo, F.P., Bottino, M.A. and Balducci, I. (2009) Bond Strength Durability of Self-Etching Adhesives and Resin Cements to Dentin. Journal of Applied Oral Science, 17, 155-160.
[14] Tonial, D., Ghiggi, P.C., Lise, A.A., Burnett Jr., L.H., Oshima, H.M. and Spohr, A.M. (2010) Effect of Conditioner on Microtensile Bond Strength of Self-Adhesive Resin Cements to Dentin. Stomatologija, 12, 73-79.
[15] Paul, S.J. and Sch?rer, P. (1997) The Dual Bonding Technique: A Modified Method to Improve Adhesive Luting Procedures. International Journal of Periodontics and Restorative Dentistry, 17, 536-545.
[16] Magne, P. (2005) Immediate Dentin Sealing: A Fundamental Procedure for Indirect Bonded Restorations. Journal of Esthetic and Restorative Dentistry, 17, 144-155.
[17] Magne, P., Kim, T.H., Cascione, D. and Donovan, T.E. (2005) Immediate Dentin Sealing Improves Bond Strength of Indirect Restorations. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, 94, 511-519.

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.