Anti-Oxidant Status of Male Adults with and without Prostate Cancer in Ibadan, Nigeria


Background: Recent studies show increasing prostate cancer incidence in Nigeria. Significant correlations identified between diet and prostate cancer occurrence, indicate that low antioxidant status could contribute to the aetiology of prostate cancer. Methods: This cross-sectional study determined selected antioxidants (lycopene, beta-carotene and retinol) status of 10 (Experimental group) and 17 (Control) male adults with and without PC, recruited from the Urological Section of the Surgical Out-patients’ Department, University College Hospital and the General Out-patient Clinic of the Ring Road State Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. Demographic characteristics were assessed using a semi-structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire. Daily antioxidant intakes were assessed and analyzed using 24-hour dietary recall, and an adapted version of the food database “Total Diet Assessment”. Serum lycopene, beta-carotene and retinol were determined using High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Results: The mean age of the PC and the control (72.8 ± 6.2 years and 59.8 ± 4.8 years) was significantly different (p = 0.001). Mean daily lycopene intake (1408.4 ± 233.2 μg) of the PC was significantly lower (P = 0.030) than the controls (3862.3±316.2μg). The mean serum lycopene (19.8 ± 13.2 ng/ml), beta-carotene (43.6 ± 26.0 ng/ml) and retinol (362.2 ± 304.3ng/ml) of the PC were significantly lower (p = 0.008, 0.040 and 0.033 respectively) than the values (70.8 ± 49.8 ng/ml, 57.6 ± 47.7 ng/ml and 395.4 ± 275.6 ng/ml respectively) of the controls. Significant inverse correlations were observed between the dietary lycopene intake (r = -0.396, p = 0.041) and serum lycopene (r =-0.502, p = 0.008) with PC; while a significant positive association was observed between dietary intake of retinol with PC (r = 0.394, p = 0.042). Conclusion: The study has revealed low anti-oxidant status, and an inverse association between lycopene status and prostate cancer in the elderly men.

Share and Cite:

Sosanya, M. , Fadupin, G. , Atinmo, T. and Shittu, O. (2014) Anti-Oxidant Status of Male Adults with and without Prostate Cancer in Ibadan, Nigeria. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 5, 516-524. doi: 10.4236/fns.2014.56061.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Hadley, C.W., Miller, E.C., Schwartz, S.J. and Clinton, S.K. (2002) Tomatoes, Lycopene, and Prostate Cancer: Progress and Promise. Experimental Biology and Medicine, 227, 869-880
[2] Saxe, G.A., Major, J.M., Westerberg, L., Khandrika, S. and Downs, T.M. (2008) Biological Mediators of Effect of Diet and Stress Reduction on Prostate Cancer. Integrative Cancer Therapies, 7, 130-138.
[3] World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (2007) Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective. AICR, Washington DC.
[4] Ukoli, F., Osime, U., Akereyeni, F., Okunzuwa, O., Kittles, I. and Adams-Campbell, L. (2003) Prevalence of Elevated Serum Prostate-Specific Antigen in Rural Nigeria. International Journal of Urology, 10, 315-322.
[5] Odedina, F.T., Ogunbiyi, F. and Ukoli, F. (2006) Prostate Cancer Burden in African-Americans: Can the Origin Be Traced to Ancestral African Relatives? Journal of the National Medical Association, 98, 539-543.
[6] Ogunbiyi, J.O. and Shittu, O.B. (1999) Increased Incidence of Prostate Cancer in Nigerians. Journal of the National Medical Association, 91, 159-64.
[7] National Cancer Institute, NIH, DHHS (2010) Cancer Trends Progress Report—2009/2010 Update.
[8] Sooriakumaran, P. (2006) Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy Management of Prostate Cancer. Expert Reviews, 6, 419-425.
[9] Almushatat, A.S.K., Talwar, D., McArdle, P.A, Williamson, C., Sattar, N., O’Reilly, D.S.J., Underwood, M.A. and McMillan, D.C. (2006) Vitamin Antioxidants, Lipid Peroxidation and the Systemic Inflammatory Response in Patients with Prostate Cancer. International Journal of Cancer, 118, 1051-1053.
[10] Richards, L.R., Benghuzzi, H., Tucci, M. and Hughes, J. (2003) The Synergistic Effect of Conventional and Sustained Delivery of Antioxidants on Lncap Prostate Cancer Cell Line. Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation, 39, 402-407.
[11] Chen, L., Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis, M. and Duncan, C. (2001) Oxidative DNA Damage in Prostate Cancer Patients Consuming Tomato Sauce-Based Entrees as a Whole-Food Intervention. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 93, 1872-1879.
[12] Kucuk, O., Sarkar, F.H. and Sakr, W. (2001) Phase II Randomised Clinical Trial of Lycopene Supplementation before Radical Prostatectomy. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, 10, 861-868.
[13] Zhang, J., Dhakal, I., Stone, A., Ning, B., Greene, G., Lang, N.P. and Kadlubar, F.F. (2007) Plasma Carotenoids and Prostate Cancer: A Population-Based Case-Control Study in Arkansas. Nutrition and Cancer, 59, 46-53.
[14] Guo, X., Knudsen, B.S., Peehl, D.M., Ruiz, A., Bok, D., Rando, R.R., Rhim, J.S., Nanus, D.M. and Gudas, L.J. (2002) Retinol Metabolism and Lecithin: Retinol Acyltransferase Levels Are Reduced in Cultured Human Prostate Cancer Cells and Tissue Specimens. Cancer Research, 62, 1654-1661.
[15] Cook, N., Stampfer, M. and Ma, J. (1999) Beta-Carotene Supplementation for Patients with Low Baseline Levels and Decreased Risks of Total and Prostate Carcinoma. Cancer, 86, 1783-1792.<1783::AID-CNCR21>3.0.CO;2-N
[16] United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (2010) USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 23.
[17] Sanusi, R.A. and Adebiyi, A.E. (2009) Beta Carotene Content of Commonly Consumed Foods and Soups in Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 8, 1512-1516.
[18] Oguntona, E.B and Akinyele, I.O. (1995) Nutrient Composition of Commonly Eaten Foods in Nigeria-Raw Processed and Prepared. Food Basket Foundation, Ibadan.
[19] Craft, N.E., Brown, E.D. and Smith Jr., J.C. (1988) Effects of Storage and Handling Conditions on Concentrations of Individual Carotenoids, Retinol and Tocopherol in Plasma. Clinical Chemistry, 34, 44-48.
[20] Tzeng, M., Yang, F., Wang-Hsu, G. and Chen, B. (2004) Determination of Major Carotenoids in Human Serum by Liquid Chromatography. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, 12, 79-83.
[21] (2007) Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0, Release 16.0.
[22] Giovannucci, E. (2002) A Review of Epidemiologic Studies of Tomatoes, Lycopene and Prostate Cancer. Experimental Biology and Medicine, 227, 852-859.
[23] Osegbe, D.N. (1997) Prostate Cancer in Nigerians: Facts and Non-Facts. Journal of Urology, 157, 1340-1343.
[24] Andersson, S.O., Walk, A., Bergstrom, R., Giovanucci, E., Lindgren, C., Baron, I. and Adami, H.O. (1996) Energy, Nutrient Intake and Prostate Cancer Risk: A Population-Based Case-Control Study in Sweden. International Journal of Cancer, 68, 716-722.<716::AID-IJC4>3.0.CO;2-6
[25] Bosetti, C., Talamini, R., Montella, M., Negri, E., Conti, E., Franceschi, S. and La Vecchia, S.C. (2004) Retinol, Carotenoids and the Risk of Prostate Cancer: A Case-Control Study from Italy. International Journal of Cancer, 112, 689692.
[26] Watters, J., Gail, M.H., Weinstein, S.J., Virtamo, J. and Albanes, D. (2009) Associations between Alpha-Tocopherol, Βeta-Carotene and Retinol and Prostate Cancer Survival. Cancer Research, 69, 3833.
[27] Panel on Dietary Antioxidants and Related Compounds, Subcommittees on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients and Interpretation and Uses of DRIs, Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes, Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine (2000) Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C Vitamin E, Selenium and Carotenoids. The National Academies Press.
[28] Key, T.J., Appleby, P.N., Allen, N.E., Travis, R.C., Roddam, A.W., Jenab, M., Egevad, L., Tjonneland, A., Johnsen, N. F., Overvad, K., Linseisen, J., Rohrmann, S., Boeing, H., Pischon, T., Psaltopoulou, T., Trichopoulou, A., Trichopoulos, D., Palli, D., Vineis, P., Tumino, R., Berrino, F., Kiemeney, L., Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B., Quirós, J.R., González, C.A., Martinez, C., Larranaga, N., Chirlaque, M.D., Ardanaz, E., Stattin, P., Hallmans, G., Khaw, K., Bingham, S., Slimani, N., Ferrari, P., Rinaldi, S. and Riboli, E. (2007) Plasma Carotenoids, Retinol and Tocopherols and the Risk of Prostate Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 86, 672-681.
[29] Goodman, G.E, Schaffer, S., Omenn, G.S., Chen, C. and King, I. (2003) Association between Lung and Prostate Cancer Risk and Serum Micronutrients: Results and Lessons Learned From Β-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, 12, 518.
[30] Herzog, A., Siler, U., Spitzer, V., Seifert, N., Denelavas, A., Hunziker, P.B., Hunziker, W., Goralczykand, R. and Wertz, K. (2005) Lycopene Reduced Gene Expression of Steroid Targets and Inflammatory Markers in Normal Rat Prostate. The FASEB Journal, 19, 272-274.
[31] Limpens, J., Schroeder, F.H., de Ridder, C.M., Bolder, C.A., Wildhagen, M.F., Obermueller-Jevic, U.C., Kramer, K. and van Weerden, W.M. (2006) Combined Lycopene and Vitamin E Treatment Suppresses the Growth of PC-346C Human Prostate Cancer Cells in Nude Mice. Journal of Nutrition, 136, 1287-1293.
[32] Kristal, A.R., Arnold, K.B., Schenk, J.M., Neuhouser, M.L., Goodman, P., Penson, D.F. and Thompson, I.M. (2008) Dietary Patterns, Supplement Use and the Risk of Symptomatic Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Results from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial. American Journal of Epidemiology, 167, 925-934.
[33] Holick, C.L., Michaud, D.S., Stolzenberg-Solomon, R., Mayne, S.T., Pietinen, P., Taylor, P.R., Virtamo, J. and Albanes, D. (2002) Dietary Carotenoids, Serum Β-Carotene and Retinol and Risk Of Lung Cancer in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cohort Study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 156, 536-547.
[34] Rao, A.V., Fleshner, N. and Agarwal, S. (1999) Serum and Tissue Lycopene and Biomarkers OfOxidation in Prostate Cancer Patients: A Case Control Study. Nutrition and Cancer, 33, 159-164.
[35] Lu, Q., Hung, J., Heber, D., Go, V.L.W., Reuter, V.E., Cordon-Cardo, C., Scher, H.I., Marshall, J.R. and Zhang, Z. (2001) Inverse Associations between Plasma Lycopene and Other Carotenoids and Prostate Cancer. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, 10, 74.
[36] Vogt, T.M., Mayne, S.T., Graubard, B.I., Swanson, C.A., Sowell, A.L., Schoenberg, J.B., Swanson, G.M., Greenberg, R.S., Hoover, R.N., Hayes, R.B. and Ziegler, R.G. (2002) Serum Lycopene, Other Serum Carotenoids and Risk of Prostate Cancer in US Blacks and Whites. American Journal of Epidemiology, 155, 1023-1032.
[37] Karppi, J., Kurl, S., Nurmi, T., Rissanen, T.H., Pukkala, E. and Nyyssonen, K. (2009) Serum Lycopene and the Risk of Cancer: The Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor (KIHD) Study. Annals of Epidemiology, 19, 512-518.
[38] Maserejian, N.N., Giovannucci, E.L., McVary, K.T. and McKinlay, J.B. (2011) Dietary, But Not Supplemental Intakes of Carotenoids and Vitamin C Are Associated with Decreased Odds of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Men. Journal of Nutrition, 141, 267-273.
[39] Margetts, B.M. and Nelson, M. (2000) Design Concepts in Nutritional Epidemiology. 2nd Edition, Oxford University Press, New York.
[40] Oldewage-Theron, W.H., Samuel, F.O. and Djoulde, R.D. (2010) Serum Concentration and Dietary Intake of Vitamins A and E in Low-Income South African Elderly. Clinical Nutrition, 29, 119-123.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.