Effect of Light on Stability of Anthocyanins in Ethanolic Extracts of Rubus fruticosus


Blackberry (Rubus fructicosus) is one of the fruit with the highest concentration of anthocyanins; however, its use is limited for making jams, jellies and liqueur, and recently, fruit concentrates in combination with pomegranate, blueberry and grape. One of the main problems with these pigments is their poor stability in solution, mainly in beverages as liqueur and juices, which depends on factors such as chemical structure, pH, temperature, light, water activity, and presence of oxygen. The effect of light on total monomeric anthocyanins content as well as the degradation rates and browning of two blackberry ethanolic extracts is to establish the conditions for storage of liqueur without adding artificial food coloring. The initial content of anthocyanins on extract without storage was 106 mg?l-1. The study assessed the light irradiation effect on the anthocyanins of blackberry ethanolic extract. The anthocyanins degradation followed the second order reaction kinetics with respect to illuminance of the light source. The t1/2 value at high illuminance (3968.30 lx) was 28.20 hours.

Share and Cite:

Contreras-Lopez, E. , Castañeda-Ovando, A. , González-Olivares, L. , Añorve-Morga, J. and Jaimez-Ordaz, J. (2014) Effect of Light on Stability of Anthocyanins in Ethanolic Extracts of Rubus fruticosus. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 5, 488-494. doi: 10.4236/fns.2014.56058.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Shibamoto, T. and Bjeldanes L.F. (2009) Introduction to Food Toxicology Food Science and Technology. Academic Press, California.
[2] Castaneda-Ovando, A., Pacheco-Hernández, M., Paez-Hernández, M., Rodríguez, J. and Galán-Vidal, C. (2009) Chemical Studies of Anthocyanins: A Review. Food Chemistry, 113, 859-871.
[3] Konczak, I. and Zhang, W. (2004) Anthocyanins—More Than Nature’s Colours. Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, 5, 239-240. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/S1110724304407013
[4] Giusti, M.M. and Wrolstad, R.E. (2003) Acylated Anthocyanins from Edible Sources and Their Applications in Food Systems: A Review. Biochemical Engineering Journal, 14, 217-225.
[5] da Costa, C.T., Nelson, B.C., Margolis, S.A. and Horton, D. (1998) Separation of Blackcurrant Anthocyanins by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis. Journal of Chromatography A, 799, 321-327.
[6] Kennedy, J.A. and Waterhouse, A.L. (2000) Analysis of Pigmented High Molecular-Mass Grape Phenolics Using Ion-Pair, Normal-Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Journal of Chromatography A, 866, 25-34.
[7] Fleschhut, J., Kratzer, F., Rechkemmer, G. and Kulling, S.E. (2006) Stability and Biotransformation of Various Dietary Anthocyanins in Vitro. European Journal of Nutrition, 45, 7-18.
[8] Wang, W.-D. and Xu, S.-Y. (2007) Degradation Kinetics of Anthocyanins in Blackberry Juice and Concentrate. Journal of Food Engineering, 82, 271-275.
[9] Barreiro, M.J. and Sandoval, B.A.J. (2006) Operaciones de Conservación de Alimentos por bajas Temperaturas. Equinoccio, Caracas.
[10] Wrolstad, R.E., Durst, R.W. and Lee, J. (2005) Tracking Color and Pigment Changes in Anthocyanin Products. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 16, 423-428.
[11] Giusti, M.M. and Wrolstad, R.E. (2001) Anthocyanins. Characterization and Measurement of Anthocyanins by UVVisible Spectroscopy. In: Wrolstad, R., Ed., Current Protocols in Food Analytical Chemistry, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, F1.2.1-F1.2.13.
[12] Lee, J., Durst, R.W. and Wrolstad, R.E. (2005) Determination of Total Monomeric Anthocyanin Pigment Content of Fruit Juices, Beverages, Natural Colorants, and Wines by the pH Differential Method: Collaborative Study. Journal of AOAC International, 88, 1269-1278.
[13] Levine, I.N. (2003) Fisicoquímica. Mc Graw Hill, México.
[14] Albarici, T.R. and Pessoa, J.D.C. (2012) Effects of Heat Treatment and Storage Temperature on the Use of Acaí Drink by Nutraceutical and Beverage Industries. Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos, 32, 9-14.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.