Share This Article:

Influence of Biogeochemical Qualities of Shizuoka Water on the Degradation of PVC Shower Hose

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:409KB) PP. 204-212
DOI: 10.4236/jep.2011.22024    4,535 Downloads   8,608 Views   Citations


Recently, it has been report of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) shower hoses becoming hard and brittle throughout the eastern and middle portion of Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. No reason has been identified for this phenomenon. The affected cities are located at the paper industries area. We have collected the stiffed hoses attached to shower faucets and examined them for chemical changes. In addition, we have analyzed the water quality of 11 affected cities in Shizuoka in an attempt to establish a probable bio-physico-chemical chain reaction that could cause such hose degradation. According to elemental analysis, oxygen-containing carbon-based plasticizers may leach out of the hose. As a result, the hoses lost flexibility after one year of use in Shizuoka. The organic nutrient (1,4-dioxane) was identified by GC-MS and the utmost number of the heterotrophic bacteria has been detected by PCR-DGGE in the shower water of Shizuoka. The study concludes that the plasticizer disappeared from the stiffed hose and the special characteristics of water in Shizuoka, consisting of organic nutrients, can be used for heterotrophic bacterial growth as a energy source at the shower water temperature, which allows prompt utilization of the plasticizer by increasing abundant bacteria, causing the brittleness of the PVC hose.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

M. Nahar and J. Zhang, "Influence of Biogeochemical Qualities of Shizuoka Water on the Degradation of PVC Shower Hose," Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 2 No. 2, 2011, pp. 204-212. doi: 10.4236/jep.2011.22024.


[1] K. Saeki, K. Funatsu and K. Tanabe, “Discrimination of Poly(Vinyl Chloride) Samples with Different Plasticizers and Prediction of Plasticizer Contents in Poly(Vinyl Chloride) Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Neural-Network Analysis,” Analytical Science, Vol. 19, No. 2, 2003, pp. 309-312. doi:10.2116/analsci.19.309
[2] R. H. Wellman and S. E. A. Mccallan, “Fungus Resistance of Plastics,” O.S.R.D. Report, 1945.
[3] S. M. Shina, H. S. Jeona, Y. H. Kimb, T. Yoshiokac and A. Okuwakic, “Plasticizer Leaching from Flexible PVC in Low Temperature Caustic Solution,” Polymer Degradation and Stability, Vol. 78, No. 3, 2002, pp. 511-517. doi:10.1016/S0141-3910(02)00198-2
[4] M. Ito and K. Nagai, “Analysis of Degradation Mechanism of Plasticized PVC under Artificial Aging Conditions,” Polymer Degradation and Stability, Vol. 92, No. 2, 2007, pp. 260-270. doi:10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2006.11.003
[5] A. Marcilla, S. García, J. C. García-Quesada, “Study of the Migration of PVC Plasticizer,” Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, Vol. 71, No. 2, 2004, pp. 457-463. doi:10.1016/S0165-2370(03)00131-1
[6] I. Skjevrak, V. Lund, K. Ormerod and H. Herikstad, “Volatile Organic Compounds in Natural Biofilm in Polyethylene Pipes Supplied with Lake Water and Treated Water from the Distribution Network,” Water Research, Vol. 39, 2005, pp. 4133-4141. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2005.07.033
[7] E. Bessem, “The Biodeterioration of Plasticized PVC and Its Prevention,” Journal of Vinyl Technology, Vol. 10, No. 1, 1988, pp. 3-6. doi:10.1002/vnl.730100103
[8] D. Shin; D. Y. Sung, H. S. Moon and K. Nam, “Microbial Succession in Response to 1,4-Dioxane Exposure in Activated Sludge Reactors: Effect of Inoculum Source and Extra Carbon Addition,” Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A, Vol. 45, No. 6, 2010, pp. 674-681.
[9] A. Hiraishi, “Biodiversity of Dioxin-Degrading Mi Croorganisms and Potential Utilization in Bioremediation,” Microbes and Environments, Vol. 18, 2003, pp. 105-125. doi:10.1264/jsme2.18.105
[10] H. Nojiri, and T. Omori, “Molecular Bases of Aerobic Bacterial Degradation of Dioxins: Involvement of Angular Dioxygenation,” Bioscience Biotechnology Biochemistry, Vol. 66, 2002, pp. 2001-2016. doi:10.1271/bbb.66.2001
[11] S. Mahendra and L. Alvarez-Cohen, “Kinetics of 1,4-Dioxane Biodegradation by MonooxyGenase-Ex- pressing Bacteria,” Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 40, 2006, pp. 5435-5442. doi:10.1021/es060714v
[12] S. Mahendra, C. J. Petzold, E. E. Baidoo, K. D. Keasling and L. Alvarez-Cohen, “Identification of the Intermediates of in Vivo Oxidation of 1,4-Dioxane by Monooxygenase-Containing Bacteria,” Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 41, 2007, No. 12, pp. 7330-7336. doi:10.1021/es0705745
[13] S. Vainberg, K. McClay, H. Masuda, D. Root, C. Condee, J. G. Zylstra and J. R. Steffan, “Biodegradation of Ether Pollutants by Pseudonocardia sp. Strain ENV478,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 72, No. 8, 2006, pp. 5218-5224. doi:10.1128/AEM.00160-06
[14] K. Kawata and A. Tanabe, “Distribution and Variation of 1,4-Dioxane in Water from Rivers in Niigata Including the Shinano River,” Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, Vol. 82, No. 6, 2009, pp. 673-677. doi:10.1007/s00128-009-9697-5
[15] R. Makino, H. Kawasaki, A. Kishimoto, M. Gamo and J. Nakanishi, “Estimating Health Risk from Exposure to 1,4-Dioxane in Japan,” Environmental Science and Tec nology, Vol. 13, No.1, 2006, pp. 43-58.
[16] A. W. Mayo and T. Noike, “Effects of Temperature and pH on the Growth of Heterotrophic Bacteria in Waste Stabilization Ponds,” Water Research, Vol. 30, No. 2, 1996, pp. 447- 455. doi:10.1016/0043-1354(95)00150-6
[17] P. C. Miller and T. R. Bott, “Effects of Biocide and Nutrient Availability on Microbial-Contamination of Surfaces in Cooling-Water Systems,” Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology, Vol. 32, No. 4, 1982, pp. 538-546.
[18] M. G. Trulear and W. G. Characklis, “Dynamics of Biofilm Processes,” Water Pollution Control Federation, Vol. 54, 1982, No. 9, pp. 1288-1301.
[19] W. M. Lechevallier, W. Schulz and R. G. Lee, “Bacterial Nutrients in Drinking Water,” Applied Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 57, 1991, pp. 857-862.
[20] R. E. Parales, J. E. Adamus, N. White and H. D. May, “Degradation of 1,4-Dioxane by an Actinomycete in Pure Culture,” Applied Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 60, 1994, pp. 4527- 4530.
[21] D. Bernhardt and H. Diekmann, “Degradation of Dioxane, Tetrahydrofuran and Other Cyclic Ethers by an Environmental. Rhodococcus Strain,” Applied Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 36, 1991, pp. 120-123.
[22] G. M. Klecka and S. J. Gonsior, “Removal of 1,4-Dioxane from Wastewater,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 13, 1986, pp. 161-168. doi:10.1016/0304-3894(86)80016-4
[23] M. J. Zenker, R. C. Borden and M. A. Barlaz, “Mineralization of 1,4-Dioxane in the Presence of a Structural Analog,” Biodegradation, Vol. 11, 2000, pp. 239-246. doi:10.1023/A:1011156924700
[24] K. Nakamiya, S. Hashimoto, H. Ito, J. Edmonds and M. Morita, “Degradation of 1,4-Dioxane and Cyclic Ethers by an Isolated Fungus,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology,” Vol. 71, 2005, pp. 1254-1258. doi:10.1128/AEM.71.3.1254-1258.2005
[25] M. W. LeChevallier, B. H. Olson and G. A. McFecters, “Assessing and Controlling Bacterial Regrowth in Distribution Systems,” Journal of American Water Works Association, Vol. 82, 1990, pp. 145-201.
[26] R. H. Wellman and S. E. A. Mccallan, “Fungus Resistance of Plastics,” O.S.R.D. Report, 1945.
[27] D. M. Molnar and J. M. Leonard, “Tropical Deterioration of Materials for Electrical Equipment, Part 1.Plasticizers,” Naval Research Laboratory Report, Washington D.C., 1995, pp. 2492.
[28] A. E. Brown, “The Problem of Fungal Growth on Synthetic Resins, Plastics and Plasticizers,” O.S.R.D. Report, MCI, 1945.
[29] J. V. Harvey and F. J. Meloro, “Studies on Degradation of Plastic Films by Fungi and Bacteria,” Quartermaster Laboratory Report, Microbiological Series, Washington D.C., 1949.
[30] M. Terasaki, F. Shiraishi, H. Fukazawa and M. Makino, “Occurrence and Estrogenicity of Phenolics in Paper-Recycling Process Water: Pollutants Originating from Thermal Paper in Waste Paper,” Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Vol. 26, 2007, pp. 2356-2366. doi:10.1897/06-642R.1
[31] M. Terasaki, H. Fukazawa, Y. Tani and M. Makino, “Organic Pollutants in Paper-Recycling Process Water Discharge Areas: First Detection and Emission in Aquatic Environment,” Environmental Pollution, Vol. 151, 2008, pp. 53-59. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2007.03.012
[32] D. Tanaka, S. Tanaka, Y. Yamashiro and S. Nakamura, “Distribution of Oil-Degrading Bacteria in Coastal Seawater, Toyama Bay, Japan,” Environmental Technology, Vol. 23, 2008, pp. 563-569.
[33] K. Simu and A. Hagstr?m, “Oligotrophic Bacterioplankton with a Novel Single-Cell Life Strategy,” Applied Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 70, 2004, pp. 2445-2451. doi:10.1128/AEM.70.4.2445-2451.2004
[34] S. J. Pirt, “Principles of Microbe and Cell Cultivation,” Blackwell, London, 1971.
[35] A. A. Esener, J. A. Roels and N. W. F. Kossen, “The Influence of Temperature on the Maximum Specific Growth Rate of Klebsiella Pneumonia,” Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Vol. XXIII, 1981, pp. 1401-1405. doi:10.1002/bit.260230620
[36] S. Mahendra and L. Alvarez-Cohen, “Kinetics of 1,4-Dioxane Biodegradation by MonooxyGenase-Ex- pressing Bacteria,” Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 40, No. 17, 2006, pp. 5435-5442. doi:10.1021/es060714v
[37] M. Ito and K. Nagai, “Analysis of Degradation Mechanism of Plasticized PVC under Artificial Aging Conditions,” Polymer Degradation and Stability, Vol. 92, 2007, pp. 260-270. doi:10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2006.11.003

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.