The Influence of Altitude and Latitude on Breeding of Amomum tsaoko (Zingiberaceae)


Objective: To explore the effect of altitude and latitude on breeding of Amomum tsaoko Crevost et Lemaire, a flexistylous ginger, which fruit is used as common materia medica and a food condiment. Methods: The 7 populations were selected randomly from the three floristic zones of Yunnan. Adult plants and infructescences were chosen randomly to gain flower number and fructification percentage per inflorescence, and seed number per fruit. All date was analyzed by SPSS (13.0 version). Results: As A. tsaoko was distributed (or transplanted) from a habitat at lower latitude and/or altitude to a site of higher latitude and/or altitude, the flower number per inflorescence increased, on the contrary, the fructification percentage per inflorescence decreased. The competition for reproductive resource was beneficial to increase flower number and seed production. Conclusions: The habitats in south of the tropic of cancer were favorable to the reproduction of A. tsaoko, which reproductive costs were lower and harvest was higher. Increasing flower number per inflorescence may be a strategy to promote the plant to distribute into alpine habitats for both female and male reproductive success.

Share and Cite:

Yang, Y. , Liu, X. , Pu, C. , Qian, Z. and Guan, K. (2014) The Influence of Altitude and Latitude on Breeding of Amomum tsaoko (Zingiberaceae). Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, 2, 9-17. doi: 10.4236/jbm.2014.21002.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Chinese Pharmacopoeia Commission (2010) Pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China (Vol. 1). Chinese Medicine Science and Technology Press, Beijing, 222-223.
[2] Wu, Z.Y. and Raven, P.H. (2000) Flora of China (Vol. 24). (Flagellariaceae through Marantaceae). Science Press, Beijing, and Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
[3] Pendleton R.L., Freeman D.C., Mctrthur E.D. and Sanderson S.C. (2000) Gender Specialization in Hete-rodichogamous Grayia brandegei (Chenopodiaceae): Evidence for an Alternative Pathway to Dioecy. American Journal of Botany, 87, 508-516.
[4] Pannell J.R. and Verdu M. (2006) The Evolution of Gender Specialization from Dimorphic Hermaphroditism: Paths from Heterodichogamy to Gynodioecy and Androdioecy. Evolution, 60, 660-673.
[5] Abdala-Roberts, L., Parra-Tabla, V. and Navarro, J. (2007) Is Floral Longevity Influenced by Reproductive Costs and Pollination Success in Cohniella ascendens (Orchidaceae)? Annals of Botany, 100, 1367-1371.
[6] Sun, S., Cao, G.-X., Luo, Y.-J. and Li, Q.-J. (2010) Maintenance and Functional Gender Specialization of Flexistyly. Chinese Journal of Plant Ecology, 34, 827-838.
[7] Wu, Z.Y. and Zhu, Y.C. (1987) Yunnan Vegetation. Science Press, Beijing, 31-32.
[8] Cui, X.L., Wei, R.C. and Huang, R.F. (1996) Biological Characters of Flowering and Fruiting Habit in Amomum tsaoko. Southwest China Journal Agriculture Science, 9, 109-113.
[9] Lloyd, D.G. (1987) Selection of Offspring Size at Independence and Other-Size-verus Number Strategies. American Naturalist, 129, 800-817.
[10] Thomson, J.D. (1989) Deployment of Ovules and Pollen among Flowers within Inflorescences. Evolutionary Trends in Plants, 3, 65-68.
[11] Campbell, D.R. (2000) Experimental Tests of Sex-Allocation Theory in Plants. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 15, 227-232.
[12] Mu, I.I., Igan, G.A. and Kevan, P.G. (1973) Color, brightness and Other Floral Characteristics Attracting Insects to the Blossoms of some Canadian Weed. Canadian Journal of Botany, 51, 1939-1952.
[13] Zhou, S.L., Pan, K.Y. and Hong, D.Y. (1996) Comparative Study on Pollination Biology of Mosla hangthouensis and M. chinense. Acta Botanica Sinica, 38, 530-540.
[14] Chen, H.Z. and Yang, Y. (1989) Behavior of Bee and Environment. Journal of Bee, 5, 39-40.
[15] Rathcke, B.J. (2003) Floral Longevity and Reproductive Assurance: Seasonal Patterns and an Experimental Test with kalmia latifolia (Ericaceae). American Journal of Botany, 90, 1328-1332.
[16] Charnov, E.L. (1996) Optimal Flower Lifetimes. Evolutionary Ecology, 10, 245-248.
[17] Ashman, T.L. and Schoen, D. J. (1994) How Long Should Flowers Live? Nature, 371, 788-791.
[18] Ashman, T.L. and Schoen, D.J. (1996) Floral Longevity: Fitness Conse-quences and Resource Costs. In: Lloyd, D.G. and Barrett, S.C.H., Eds., Floral Biology: Studies on Floral Evolution in Animal-Pollinated Plants, Chapman and Hall, New York, 112-138.
[19] Rathcke, B.J. (2003) Floral Longevity and Reproductive Assurance: Seasonal Patterns and an Experimental Test with Kalmia latifolia (Ericaceae). American Journal of Botany, 90, 1328-1332.
[20] Primack, R.B. (1985) Longevity of Individual Flowers. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 16, 15-37.
[21] Harder, L.D. and Johnson, S.D. (2005) Adaptive Plasticity of Floral Display Size in Animal-Pollinated Plants. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Series B, 272, 2651-2657.
[22] Khadari, B., Gibernau, M., Anstett, M.C., Jellberg, F.K. and Hos-Saert-Mckey, M. (1995) When Figs Wait for Pollinators: the Length of Fig Receptivity. American Journal of Botany, 82, 992-999.
[23] Arroyo, M.T.K., Armesto, J.J. and Villagran, C. (1981) Plant Phenological Patterns in the High Andean Cordillera of Central Chile. Journal of Ecology, 69, 205-223.
[24] Stratton, D.A. (1989) Longevity of Individual Flowers in a Costa Rican Cloud Forest: Ecological Correlates and Phylogenetic Constraints. Biotropica, 21, 308-318.
[25] Bingham, R.A. and Orthner, A.R. (1998) Efficient Pollination of Alpine Plants. Nature, 391, 238-239.
[26] Blionis, G.J. and Vokou, D. (2001) Pollination Ecology of Campanula Species on Mt Olympos, Greece. Ecography, 24, 287-297.
[27] Blionis, G.J., Halley, J.M. and Vokou, D. (2001) Flowering Phenology of Campanula on Mt Olympos, Greece. Ecography, 24, 696-706.
[28] Gao, J.-Y., Yang, Z.-H. and Li, Q.-J. (2009) Effect of Floral Longevity on Male and Female Fitness in Hedychium vil- losum var. villosum. Chinese Journal of Plant Ecology, 33, 89-96.
[29] Cui, X.L., Wei, R.C. and Huang, R.F. (1995) A Preliminary Study on the Genetic System of Amomum tsaoko. Journal Yunnan University, 17, 290-297.
[30] Cui, X.L., Wei, R.C. and Huang, R.F. (1995) Study on the Artificial Population Structure of Amomum tsaoko. South-west China Journal Agriculture Science, 8, 114-118.
[31] Renner, S.S. (2001) Heterodichogamy, How Common Is It? Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 16, 595-597.
[32] Li, Q.J., Xu, Z.F., Kress, W.J., Xia, Y.M., Zhang, L., Deng, X.B., Gao, J.Y. and Bai, Z.L. (2001) Flexible Style That Encourage Outcrossing. Nature, 410, 432.
[33] Li, Q.J., Xu, Z.F., Kress, W.J., Xia, Y.M., Zhang, L., Deng, X.B. and Gao, J.Y. (2001) Study on the Flexistyly Pollination Mechanism in Alpinia Plants (Zingiberaceae). Acta Botany Sinica, 43, 346-369.
[34] Li, Q.J., Kress, W.J., Xu, Z. F., Xia, Y.M., Zhang, L., Deng, X.B. and Gao, J.Y. (2002) Mating System and Stigmatic Behaviour during Flowering of Alpinia kwangsiensis (Zingiberaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution, 232, 123-132.
[35] Zhang, L. and Li, Q.J. (2002) Flexistyly and Its Evolutionary Ecological Significance. Acta Phytoecologica Sinica, 26, 385-390.
[36] Barrett, S.C.H. (2002) The Evolution of Plant Sexual Diversity. Natural Reviews Genetics, 3, 274-284.
[37] Wang, Y.Q., Zhang, D.X. and Chen, Z.Y. (2005) Pollination Biology of Alpinia hainanensis (Zingiberaceae). Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica, 43, 37-49.
[38] Wang, Y.Q., Zhang, D.X. and Chen, Z.Y. (2005) A Preliminary Study of the Pollination Biology of Alpinia oxyphylla (Zingiberaceae). Acta Phytoecologica Sinica, 29, 599-609.
[39] Takano, A., Gisil, J., Yusoff, M. and Tachi, T. (2005) Floral and Pollinator Behaviour of Flexistylous Bornran Ginger, Alpinia nieuwenhuizii (Zingiberaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution, 252, 167-173.
[40] Yang, Y.-W., Liu, X.-L., You, C. and Qian, Z.-G. (2013) Study on the Development and Flowering of Inflorescence in Amomum tsaoko (Zingiberaceae). Lishizhen Medicine and Materia Medica Research, 243, 740-742.

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.