Non-Fermentative Gram-Negative Bacteria in Drinking Water


The description of a microbiological community of drinking water distribution systems is intended for a safe and proper use of drinking water. These studies were aimed at characterising the microbial condition of the drinking water supply system in Lithuania by means of culture-based methods and biochemical techniques. Samples of drinking water (in cities supplied in centralised way from taps, wells, and boreholes) were collected in different locations in Lithuania. Seeking to grow microflora present in water the membrane filtration method was applied to study the samples. Most often water samples were studied to identify coliform bacteria (Citrobacter spp., Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., Serratia spp.), Escherichia coli (or faecal coliform), Enterococci (or fecal Streptococcus), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (other non-fermentative gram-negative bacteria) according to the international ISO standards. Large amounts of non-fermenting gram-negative bacteria were found in centralised urban water. The investigation showed that more than 50% of the wells under study had increased microbial contamination with faecal coliform bacteria and faecal Streptococcus. Bacteria of the Pseudomonas group, CDC group and other non-fermentative gram-negative bacteria were detected in more than 30% samples of centralised urban water studied.

Share and Cite:

Staradumskyte, D. and Paulauskas, A. (2014) Non-Fermentative Gram-Negative Bacteria in Drinking Water. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 6, 114-119. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.62016.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] World Health Organization, “Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality,” Incorporating First Addendum, Vol. 1, Recommendations, 3rd Edition, 2006, pp. 121-144, 221-247.
[2] World Health Organization, “Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality,” 4th Edition, 2011.
[3] V. Kiguoliene, “Ka Reikia Zinoti Apie Geiamajj Vandenj,” 2013.
[4] L. Dijkshoorn, A. Nemec and H. Seifert, “An Increasing Threat in Hospitals: Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii,” Nature Reviews Microbiology, Vol. 5, No. 12, 2007, pp. 939-951.
[5] J. J. LiPuma, B. J. Currie, G. D. Lum and P. A. R. Vandamme, “Burkholderia, Stenotrophomonas, Ralstonia, Cupriavidus, Pandoraea, Brevundimonas, Comamonas, Delftia, and Acidovorax,” In: P. R. Murray, E. J. Baron, J. H. Jorgensen, M. L. Landry and M. A. Pfaller, Eds., Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 9th Edition, ASM Press, Washington DC, 2007, pp. 749-769.
[6] S. C. Su, M. Vaneechoutte, L. Dijkshoorn, Y. F. Wei, Y. L. Chen and T. C. Chang, “Identification of Non-Fermenting Gram-Negative Bacteria of Clinical Importance by an Oligonucleotide Array,” Journal of Medical Microbiology, Vol. 58, No. 5, 2009, pp. 596-605.
[7] P. R. Murray, E. J. Boran, M. A. Pfallek, F. C. Tenover and R. H. Yolken, “Manual of Clinical Microbiology,” 6th Edition, ASM Press, Washington DC, 2005, pp. 509-530.
[8] M. David and D. V. M. Moore, “Reference Paper: Pseudomonas and the Laboratory Animal,” 1997.
[9] E. Banin, M. L. Vasil and E. P. Greenberg, “Iron and Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United states of America, Vol. 102, No. 31, 2005, pp. 11076-11081.
[10] LST EN ISO 9308-1:2001, “Water Quality—Detection and Enumeration of Escherichia coli and Coliform Bacteria—Part 1: Membrane Filtration Method,” ISO 9308-1:2000.
[11] LST EN ISO 16266:2008, “Water Quality—Detection and Enumeration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa—Method by Membrane Filtration,” ISO 16266:2006.
[12] Lithuanian Hygiene Norm HN 24:2003, Drinking Water Safety and Quality Requirements.
[13] V. T. C. Penna, S. A. M. Martins and P. G. Mazzola, “Identification of Bacteria in Drinking and Purified Water during the Monitoring of a Typical Purification System,” BMC Public Health, Vol. 2, 2002, p. 13.
[14] K. D. Mena and C. P. Gerba, “Risk Assessment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Water,” Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, Vol. 201, 2009, pp. 71-115
[15] J. W. Costerton, Z. Lewandowski, D. E. Caldwell, D. R. Korber and H. M. Lappin-Scott, “Microbial Biofilms,” Annual Review of Microbiology, Vol. 49, 1995, pp. 711-745.
[16] J. W. Costerton, Philip S. Stewart and E. P. Greenberg, “Bacterial Biofilms: A Common Cause of Persistent Infections,” Science, New Series, Vol. 284, No. 5418, 1999, pp. 1318-1322.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.