Transthoracic echocardiographic and clinical predictors in first versus recurrent ischemic strokes ()
Cardiology Division, Department of Medicine, Mubarak Al-Kabeer Hospital, Hawally, Kuwait.
Neurology Division Department of Medicine, Mubarak Al-Kabeer Hospita, Hawally, Kuwait.
Public Health Department, Ministry of Health, Ferwania, Kuwait.
Recurrent strokes are more likely to be disabling or fatal than first ever strokes. The aim of the study is to evaluate transthoracic echocardiographic (TTE) and clinical predictors in patients with first versus those with recurrent ischemic strokes. A prospective observational comparative study of 217 patients admitted with ischemic strokes who were in sinus rhythm. Two groups of patients were simultaneously enrolled. The first group was 110 patients with first ischemic stroke and the second was 107 patients with recurrent ischemic stroke. TTE was done for all patients. Both echocardiographic and clinical risk factors were compared between both groups. Logistic regression analysis identified predictors for recurrent strokes. Among clinical risk factors hypertension, hyperlipidemia, family history of atherosclerotic vascular disease, prior coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, and chronic kidney disease were significantly higher in recurrent stroke group. Multivariate logistic analysis identified age (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01 - 1.07), hypertension (OR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.03 - 4.92), and hyperlipidemia (OR, 2.73; 95% CI, 1.40 - 5.35), as predictors for recurrent ischemic strokes. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and aortic sclerosis were significantly more common in the recurrent stroke group compared to the first stroke group. However, in multivariate logistic analysis only LVH (OR, 3.50; 95% CI, 1.69 - 7.23), was identified as a predictor for recurrent strokes. Older age, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and left ventricular hypertrophy are significant predictors of recurrent ischemic strokes in patients with sinus rhythm. Those patients need more aggressive lipid lowering therapy and optimal blood pressure control.
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Conflicts of Interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
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