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Attenuation of Salt-Loading Induced Cardiomegaly and Dyslipidemia in Wistar Rats by Aqueous Leaf Extract of Chromolaena odorata

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DOI: 10.4236/pp.2014.52022    4,110 Downloads   5,705 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT


The effect of aqueous extract of the leaves of Chromolaena odorata on body weight, organ sizes, lipid profiles and atherogenic indices was investigated in normal and sub-chronic salt-loaded rats. The normal and treatment control groups were fed 100% of commercial feed, while the test control, reference and test treatment groups received an 8% salt-loaded diet. The extract (at 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight) and moduretics (at 1 mg/kg body weight) were orally administered daily. The normal and test control groups orally received appropriate volumes of water. The extract was screened for bioactive components using gas chromatography-coupled-flame ionization detector. The main glycosides, saponins, allicins, alkaloids, benzoic acid derivatives, terpenes and lignans detected were arbutin, avenacin B-1 (and avenacin A-1), diallyl thiosulphinate, lupanine, ferulic acid (and vanillic acid), limonene and retusin, respectively. Compared to test control, the extract dose-dependently, significantly (P < 0.05) lowered the heart size, plasma levels of triglyceride, total density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol and atherogenic indices (cardiac risk ratio, atherogenic coefficient and atherogenic index of plasma). It also significantly increased plasma high density lipoprotein level. These results suggest a protective mechanism of the extract against hypertension induced cardiomegaly and dyslipidemia, thus suggesting that this may underlie its antihypertensive action.


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The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

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J. Ikewuchi, C. Ikewuchi and M. Ifeanacho, "Attenuation of Salt-Loading Induced Cardiomegaly and Dyslipidemia in Wistar Rats by Aqueous Leaf Extract of Chromolaena odorata," Pharmacology & Pharmacy, Vol. 5 No. 2, 2014, pp. 160-170. doi: 10.4236/pp.2014.52022.

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