Cognitive Retroactive Transfer (CRT) of Language Skills among Trilingual Arabic-Hebrew and English Learners

DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2014.41001   PDF   HTML     5,014 Downloads   7,641 Views   Citations


This study examined whether helping poor readers improve their reading and writing language skills in English as a third language/foreign language (L3/FL) would also bring about an improvement in those same skills in Arabic (L1) and Hebrew (L2). Transferring linguistic skills from L3/FL to both L1 and L2 is termed “Cognitive Retroactive Transfer” (CRT). A battery of tests, administered to the experiment and control groups, assessed orthographic knowledge, phonological awareness, morphological awareness, syntactic awareness, reading accuracy and reading comprehension in English, Arabic, and Hebrew. The treatment group was provided with an intervention program in English, but not in Arabic or Hebrew, both before and after the experiment. Findings indicated a significant improvement in the treatment group’s achievements in all linguistic and meta-linguistic skills in all study languages after the intervention, except for orthographic knowledge in Arabic and Hebrew. The results are discussed in light of the international data.

Share and Cite:

Abu-Rabia, S. & Shakkour, W. (2014). Cognitive Retroactive Transfer (CRT) of Language Skills among Trilingual Arabic-Hebrew and English Learners. Open Journal of Modern Linguistics, 4, 1-20. doi: 10.4236/ojml.2014.41001.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Abd El-Minem, F. M. (1987). Elm Al-Sarf. Jerusalem: Al-Taufik Press.
[2] Abu-Rabia, S. (1997a). Verbal and Working Memory Skills of Bilingual Hebrew-English Speaking Children. International Journal of Psycholinguistics, 13, 25-40.
[3] Abu-Rabia, S. (1997b). Language Proficiency in Four Languages: The Case of Circassians in Israel. Curriculum and Teaching, 18, 27-58.
[4] Abu-Rabia, S. (1998). Reading Arabic Texts: Effects of Text Type, Reader Type and Vowelization. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 10, 106-119.
[5] Abu-Rabia, S. (2001a). Testing the Independence Hypothesis among Native Adult Bilingual Russian-English Students. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 30, 437-455.
[6] Abu-Rabia, S. (2001b). The Role of Vowels in Reading Semitic Scripts: Data from Arabic and Hebrew. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 14, 39-59.
[7] Abu-Rabia, S. (2002). Reading in a Root-Based Morphology Language: The Case of Arabic. Journal of Research in Reading, 25, 299-309.
[8] Abu-Rabia, S. (2007). The Role of Morphology and Short Vowelization in Reading Arabic among Normal and Dyslexic Readers in Grades 3, 6, 9, and 12. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 36, 89-106.
[9] Abu-Rabia, S., & Blueistin-Danon, D. (2012). A Study into the Results of an Intervention Program of Linguistic Skills in English (L2) and Its Effect on Hebrew (L1) among Poor Readers: An Examination of the Cognitive-Retroactive Transfer (CRT) Hypothesis. Open Journal of Modern linguistics, 2, 131-189.
[10] Abu-Rabia, S., & Saliba, F. (2008). The Lexical Status of Basic Arabic Verb Morphemes among Dyslexic Children. Australian Journal of Learning Difficulties, 13, 115-144.
[11] Abu-Rabia, S., & Sanitsky, E. (2010). Advantages of Bilinguals over Monolinguals in Learning a Third Language. Journal of Bilingual Research, 33, 173-199.
[12] Abu-Rabia, S., & Siegel, L. S. (2002). Reading, Syntactic, Orthographic, and Working Memory Skills of Bilingual ArabicEnglish Speaking Canadian Children. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 31, 661-678.
[13] Abu-Rabia, S., & Siegel, L. S. (2003). Reading Skills in Three Orthographies: The Case of Trilingual Arabic-Hebrew-EnglishSpeaking Arab Children. Reading and Writing, 16, 611-634.
[14] Abu-Rabia, S., & Taha, H. (2006). Reading in Arabic Orthography: Characteristics, Research Findings, and Assessment. In R. M. Joshi, & P. G. Aaron (Eds.), Handbook of Orthography and Literacy (pp. 321-338). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
[15] Abu-Rabia, S., Shakkour, W., & Siegel, L. S. (2013). Cognitive Retroactive Transfer (CRT) of Language Skills among Bilingual Arabic-English Readers. Bilingual Research Journal, 36, 1-19.
[16] Adams, M. J. (1990). Beginning to Read: Thinking and Learning about Print. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
[17] Akamatsu, N. (2003). The Effects of First Language Orthographic Features on Second Language Reading in Text. Language Learning, 53, 207-231.
[18] Alderson, J. C. (1993). The Relationship between Grammar and Reading in English for Academic Purposes Test Battery. In D. Douglas, & C. Chappelle (Eds.), A New Decade of Language Testing Research: Selected Papers from the 1990 Language Testing Research Colloquium. Alexandria, VA: TESOL.
[19] Alderson, C., & Urquhart, A. (1988). This Test Is Unfair: I’m not an Economist. In P. Carrell, J. Devine, & D. Eske (Eds.), Interactive Approaches to Second Language Reading. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
[20] Al-Tamimi, Y., & Rabab’ah, G. (2007). The Relationship between Phonological Awareness and Word Reading. Poznań Studies in Contemporary Linguistics, 43, 5-21.
[21] Arab-Moghaddam, M., & Sénéchal, M. (2001). Orthographic and Phonological Processing Skills in Reading and Spelling in Persian/English Bilinguals. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 25, 140-147.
[22] Azzam, R. (1989). Orthography and Reading of the Arabic Language. In P. G. Aaron, & R. M. Joshi (Eds.), Reading and Writing Disorders in Different Orthographic Orthographic Systems (pp. 203-218). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
[23] Badian, N. A. (1995). Predicting Reading Ability over the Long Term: The Changing Roles of Letter Naming, Phonological Awareness and Orthographic Processing. Annals of Dyslexia, 45, 79-96.
[24] Ball, E. (1993). Assessing Phoneme Awareness. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 24, 130-139.
[25] Bialystok, E., Luk, G., & Kwan, E. (2005). Bilingualism, Biliteracy, and Learning to Read: Interactions among Languages and Writing Systems. Scientific Studies of Reading, 9, 43-61.
[26] Bindman, M. (2004). Grammatical Awareness across Languages and the Role of Social Context: Evidence from English and Hebrew. In T. Nunes, & P. Bryant (Eds.), Handbook of Children’s Literacy (pp. 691-709). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
[27] Byrne, B. (1996). The Learnability of the Alphabetic Principle: Children’s Initial Hypotheses about How Print Represents Spoken Language. Applied Psycholinguistics, 17, 401-426.
[28] Carlisle, J. F. (1995). Morphological Awareness and Early Reading Achievement. In L. B. Feldman (Ed.), Morphological Aspects of Language Processing (pp. 189-209). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
[29] Carlisle, J. F., & Stone, C. A. (2003). The Effects of Morphological Structure on Children’s Reading of Derived Words in English. In E. M. Assink, & D. Sandra (Eds.), Reading Complex Words: Cross Language Studies (pp. 27-52). New York: Kluwer Academic.
[30] Carroll, S. (2000). Input and Evidence: The Raw Material of Second Language Acquisition. Amsterdam: John Benjamin’s.
[31] Cheung, H., Chan, M., & Chong, K. (2007). Use of Orthographic Knowledge in Reading by Chinese-English Bi-Scriptal Children. Language Learning, 57, 469-505.
[32] Chiappe, P., Glaeser, B., & Ferko, D. (2007). Speech Perception, Vocabulary and the Development of Reading Skills in English among Koreanand English-Speaking Children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99, 154-166.
[33] Chiang, P., & Rvachew, S. (2007). English-French Bilingual Children’s Phonological Awareness and Vocabulary Skills. Canadian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 10, 293-308.
[34] Chiappe, P., & Siegel, L. S. (1999). Phonological Awareness and Reading Acquisition in Englishand Punjabi-Speaking Canadian Children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91, 20-28.
[35] Chiappe, P., Siegel, L., & Gottardo, A. (2002). Reading-Related Skills of Kindergartners from Diverse Linguistic Backgrounds. Applied Psycholinguistics, 23, 95-116.
[36] Chiappe, P., Siegel, L. S., & Wade-Woolley, L. (2002). Linguistic Diversity and the Development of Reading Skills: A Longitudinal Study. Scientific Studies of Reading, 6, 369-400.
[37] Cisero, C. A., & Royer, J. M. (1995). The Development and Cross-Language Transfer of Phonological Awareness. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 20, 275-303.
[38] Cromdal, J. (1999). Childhood Bilingualism and Metalinguistic Skills: Analysis and Control in Young Swedish-English Bilinguals. Applied Psycholinguistics, 20, 1-20.
[39] Cummins, J. (1979). Linguistic Interdependence and the Educational Development of Bilingual Children. Review of Educational Research, 49, 222-251.
[40] Cummins, J. (1981). The Role of Primary Language Development in Promoting Educational Success for Language Minority Students. In California State Department of Education (Ed.), Schooling and Language Minority Students: A Theoretical Rationale (pp. 3-49). Los Angeles, CA: California State University.
[41] da Fontoura, H. A., & Siegel, L. S. (1995). Reading, Syntactic, and Working Memory Skills of Bilingual Portuguese-English Canadian Children. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 7, 139-153.
[42] D’Angiulli, A., Siegel, L. S., & Serra, E. (2001). The Development of Reading in English and Italian in Bilingual Children. Applied Psycholinguistics, 22, 479-507.
[43] Davidson, D., Raschke, V. R., & Pervez, J. (2010). Syntactic Awareness in Young Monolingual and Bilingual (Urdu-English) Children. Cognitive Development, 25, 166-182.
[44] Deacon, S. H., & Kirby, J. R. (2004). Morphological Awareness: Just “More Phonological”? The Roles of Morphological and Phonological Awareness in Reading Development. Applied Psycholinguistics, 25, 223-238.
[45] Deacon, S. H., Wade-Woolley, L., & Kirby, J. R. (2009). Flexibility in Young Second-Language Learners: Examining the Language Specificity of Orthographic Processing. Journal of Research in Reading, 32, 215-229.
[46] de Jong, P. F., & Van der Leij, A. (1999). Specific Contributions of Phonological Abilities to Early Reading Acquisition: Results from a Dutch Latent Variable Longitudinal Study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91, 450-476.
[47] Droop, M., & Verhoeven, L. (1998). Background Knowledge, Linguistic Complexity, and Second-Language Reading Comprehension. Journal of Literacy research, 30, 253-271.
[48] Durgunoglu, A. Y. (2002). Cross-Linguistic Transfer in Literacy Development and Implications for Language Learners. Annals of Dyslexia, 52, 189-204.
[49] Durgunoglu, A. Y., Mir, M., & Ari?o-Martí, S. (2002). The Relationship between Bilingual Children’s Reading and Writing in Their Two Languages. In S. Randsdell, & M. L. Barbier (Eds.), Psycholinguistic Approaches to Understanding Second Language Writing (pp. 81-100). Dordrecht: Kluwer.
[50] Durgunoglu, A. Y., Nagy, W. E., & Hancin-Bhatt, B. J. (1993). Cross-Language Transfer of Phonological Awareness. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85, 453-465.
[51] Durgunoglu, A. Y., & Oney, B. (1999). A Cross-Linguistic Comparison of Phonological Awareness and Word Recognition. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 11, 281-299.
[52] Dussias, P. E., & Scaltz, T. R. C. (2008). Spanish-English L2 Speakers’ Use of Subcategorization Bias Information in the Resolution of Temporary Ambiguity during Second Language Reading. Acta Psychologia, 128, 501-513.
[53] Ehri, L. C. (1992). Reconceptualizing the Development of Sight Word Reading and Its Relationship to Recoding. In P. Gough, L. Ehri, & R. Treiman (Eds.), Reading Acquisition (pp. 107-143). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
[54] Ehri, L. C. (1997). Sight Word Learning in Normal Readers and Dyslexia. In B. Blachman (Eds.), Foundations of Reading Acquisition and Dyslexia: Implications for Early Intervention (pp. 163-189). Mahweh, NJ: Erlbaum.
[55] Frost, L., Kaplan, S. W., Cohen, T. E., Henzi, V., Kandel, E. R., & Hawkins, R. D. (1997). A Simplified Preparation for Relating Cellular Events to Behavior: Contribution of LE and Unidentified Siphon Sensory Neurons to Mediation and Habituation of the Aplysia Gill and Siphon Withdrawal Reflex. Journal of Neuroscience, 17, 2900-2913.
[56] Fung, I. Y. Y., Wilkinson, I. A. G., & Moore, D. W. (2003). L1-Assisted Reciprocal Teaching to Improve ESL Students’ Comprehension of English Expository Text. Learning and Instruction, 13, 1-31.
[57] Galambos, S. J., & Goldin-Meadow, S. (1990). The Effects of Learning Two Languages on Levels of Metalinguistic Awareness. Cognition, 34, 1-56.
[58] Garcia, G. E. (1991). Bilingualism, Second Language Acquisition, and the Education of Chicano Language Minority Students. In R. R. Valencia (Ed.), Chicano School Failure and Success: Research and Policy Agendas for the 1990s. New York: Falmer.
[59] Geva, E. (1995). Orthography and Cognitive Processing in Learning to Read English and Hebrew. In I. Taylor, & D. R. Olson (Eds.), Scripts and Literacy (pp. 277-291). Dordrecht: Kluwer.
[60] Geva, E., & Siegel, L. (2000). Orthographic and Cognitive Factors in the Concurrent Development of Basic Reading Skills in Two Languages. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 12, 1-30.
[61] Geva, E., Yaghoubzadeh, Z., & Schuster, B. (2000). Understanding Individual Differences in Word Recognition Skills of ESL Children. Annals of Dyslexia, 50, 121-154.
[62] Gillon, G. (2002). Follow-Up Study Investigating Benefits of Phonological Awareness Intervention for Children with Spoken Language Impairment. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 37, 381-400.
[63] Goswami, U., & Bryant, P. E. (1990). Phonological Skills and Learning to Read. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
[64] Gottardo, A., Yan, B., Siegel, L. S., & Wade-Woolley, L. (2001). Factors Related to English Reading Performance in Children with Chinese as a First Language: More Evidence of Cross-Language Transfer of Phonological Processing. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93, 530-542.
[65] Guo, Y., & Roehrig, A. D. (2011). Roles of General versus Second Language (L2) Knowledge in L2 Reading Comprehension. Reading in a Foreign Language, 23, 42-64.
[66] Jarvis, S., & Odlin, T. (2000). Morphological Type, Spatial Reference, and Language Transfer. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 22, 535-556.
[67] Just, M. A., & Carpenter, P. A. (1987). The Psychology of Reading and Language Comprehension. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
[68] Kahn-Horwitz, J., Shimron, J., & Sparks, R. L. (2005). Predicting Foreign Language Reading Achievement in Elementary School Students. Reading and Writing, 18, 527-558.
[69] Katz, L., & Frost, L. (1992). Reading in Different Orthographies: The Orthographic Depth Hypothesis. In R. Frost, & L. Katz (Eds.), Orthography, Phonology Morphology, and Meaning (pp. 67-84). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
[70] Keung, Y. C., & Ho, C. S. H. (2009). Transfer of Reading-Related Cognitive Skills in Learning to Read Chinese (L1) and English (L2) among Chinese Elementary School Children. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 34, 103-112.
[71] Kieffer, M. J., & Lesaux, N. K. (2008). The Role of Derivational Morphology in the Reading Comprehension of SpanishSpeaking English Language Learners. Reading and Writing, 21, 783-804.
[72] Kim, Y. S. (2009). The Relationship between Home Literacy Practices and Developmental Trajectories of Emergent Literacy and Conventional Literacy Skills for Korean Children. Reading and Writing, 22, 57-84.
[73] Koda, K. (2007). Reading and Language Learning: Crosslinguistic Constraints on Second Language Reading Development. Language Learning, 57, 1-44.
[74] Laurent, A., & Martinot, C. (2010). Bilingualism and Phonological Awareness: The Case of Bilingual (French-Occitan) Children. Reading and Writing, 23, 435-452.
[75] Lefran?ois, P., & Armand, F. (2003). The Role of Phonological and Syntactic Awareness in Second Language Reading. The Case of Spanish-Speaking Learners of French. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 16, 219-246.
[76] Leiken, M., Share, D., & Schwartz, M. (2005). Difficulties in L2 Hebrew Reading in Russian-Speaking Second Graders. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 18, 455-472.
[77] Lesaux, N. K., & Siegel, L. S. (2003). The Development of Reading in Children Who Speak English as a Second Language. Developmental Psychology, 39, 1005-1019.
[78] Liberman, I. Y., Shankweiler, D., Fischer, F. W., & Carter, B. (1974). Explicit Syllable and Phoneme Segmentation in the Young Child. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 18, 201-212.
[79] Lindgren, S. D., DeRenzi, E., & Richman, L. C. (1985). Cross-National Comparison of Developmental Dyslexia in Italy and the United States. Child Development, 56, 1404-1417.
[80] Lipka, O., Siegel, L. S., & Vukovic, R. (2005). The Literacy Skills of English Language Learners in Canada. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 20, 39-49.
[81] Lyon, G. R., Fletcher, J. M., & Barnes, M. C. (2003). Learning Disabilities. In E. J. Mash, & R. A. Barkley (Eds.), Child Psychopathology (2nd ed., pp. 520-586). New York: Guilford Press.
[82] Mahony, D., Singson, M., & Mann, V. (2000). Reading Ability and Sensitivity to Morphological Relations. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 12, 191-218.
[83] Mann, V. (1998). Language Problems and Early Reading. In B. Y. L. Wong (Ed.), Learning about Learning Disabilities (pp. 163-202). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
[84] Mann, V. A., & Wimmer, H. (2002). Phoneme Awareness and Pathways into Literacy: A Comparison of German and American Children. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 15, 653-682.
[85] McBride-Chang, C., Cho, J. R., Liu, H. Y., Wagner, R. K., Shu, H., Zhou, A., & Muse, A. (2005). Changing Models across Cultures: Associations of Phonological Awareness and Morphological Structure Awareness with Vocabulary and Word Recognition in Second Graders from Beijing, Hong Kong, Korea, and the United States. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 92, 140-160.
[86] McBride-Chang, C., Tong, X., Shu, H., Wong, A. M. Y., Leung, K. W., & Tardif, T. (2008). Syllable, Phoneme, and Tone: Psycholinguistic Units in Early Chinese and English Word Recognition. Scientific Studies of Reading, 12, 171-194.
[87] Morfidi, E., Van der Leij, A., de Jong, P. F., Scheltinga, F., & Bekebrede, J. (2007). Reading in Two Orthographies: A Cross-Linguistic Study of Dutch Average and Poor Readers Who Learn English as a Second Language. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 20, 753-784.
[88] Mukattash, L. (2003). Towards a New Methodology for Teaching English to Arab Learners. International Journal of ArabicEnglish Studies, 4, 211-234.
[89] Nassaji, H., & Geva, E. (1999). The Contribution of Phonological and Orthographic Processing Skills to Adult ESL Reading: Evidence from Native Speakers of Farsi. Applied Psycholinguistics, 20, 241-267.
[90] Perfetti, C. A. (1985). Reading Ability. New York: Oxford University Press.
[91] Perfetti, C. A. (2003). The Universal Grammar of Reading. Scientific Studies of Reading, 7, 3-24.
[92] Proctor, C. P., August, D., Carlo, M. S., & Snow, C. E. (2006). The Intriguing English Reading Comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98, 159-169.
[93] Ramirez, G., Chen, X., Geva, E., & Kiefer, H. (2010). Morphological Awareness in Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners: Within and Cross-Language Effects on Word Reading. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 23, 337-358.
[94] Ravid, D. (2001). Learning to Spell in Hebrew: Phonological and Morphological Factors. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 14, 459-485.
[95] Ryan, A., & Meara, P. (1991). The Case of Invisible Vowels: Arabic Speakers Reading English Words. Reading in a Foreign Language, 7, 531-539.
[96] Rayner, K., & Pollatsek, A. (1989). The Psychology of Reading. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
[97] Rayner, K., & Pollatsek, A. (1994). The Psychology of Reading. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
[98] Saiegh-Haddad, E. (2005). Correlates of Reading Fluency in Arabic: Diglossic and Orthographic Factors. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 18, 559-582.
[99] Saiegh-Hadadd, E., & Geva, E. (2008). Morphological Awareness, Phonological Awareness, and Reading in English-Arabic Bilingual Children. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 21, 481-504.
[100] Scanlon, D. M., & Vellution, F. R. (1997). A Comparison of the Instructional Backgrounds and Cognitive Profiles of Poor, Average, and Good Readers Who Were Initially Identified as at Risk for Reading Failure. Scientific Studies of Reading, 1, 191-215.
[101] Sheen, R. (2001). Contrastive Analysis in Language Teaching: Time to Come in from the Cold. Academic Exchange Quarterly, 5, 119-124.
[102] Schiff, R., & Calif, S. (2007). Role of Phonological and Morphological Awareness in L2 Oral Word Reading. Language Learning, 57, 271-298.
[103] Schwarzwald, O. R. (2001). Modern Hebrew. Languages of the World/Materials, 127. Munich: Lincom Europe.
[104] Schweers, C. (1999). Using L1 in the L2 Classroom. English Teaching Forum, 37, 6-9.
[105] Shimron, J. (1993). The Role of Vowels in Reading: A Review of Studies of English and Hebrew. Psychological Bulletin, 114, 52-67.
[106] Shimron, J., & Sivan, T. (1994). Reading Proficiency and Orthography: Evidence from Hebrew and English. Language Learning, 44, 5-27.
[107] Shiotsu, T. (2009). Reading Ability and Components of Word Recognition Speed: The Case of L1-Japanese EFL Learners. In Z. Han, & N. Anderson (Eds.), Second Language Reading Research and Instruction (pp. 15-37). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
[108] Snow, C. E., Burns, M. S., & Griffin, P. (1998). Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children. Washington DC: National Research Council.
[109] Snow, C. E., & Sweet, A. P. (2003). Reading for Comprehension. In A. P. Sweet, & C. E. Snow (Eds.), Rethinking Reading Comprehension. New York: The Guilford Press.
[110] Stanovich, K. E. (1986). Matthew Effects in Reading: Some Consequences of Individual Differences in the Acquisition of Literacy. Reading Research Quarterly, 21, 360-405.
[111] Sun-Alperin, M. K., & Wang, M. (2009). Cross-Language Transfer of Phonological and Orthographic Processing Skills in Spanish-Speaking Children Learning to Read and Spell in English. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 24, 591-614.
[112] Tang, J. (2002). Using L1 in the English Classroom. English Teaching Forum, 40, 36-43.
[113] Van der Leij, A., Bekebrede, J., & Kotterink, M. (2010). Acquiring Reading and Vocabulary in Dutch and English: The Effect of Concurrent Instruction. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 23, 415-434.
[114] Verhoeven, L. (2000). Components in Early Second Language Reading and Spelling. Scientific Studies of Reading, 4, 313330.
[115] Verhoeven, L. (2007). Early Bilingualism, Language Transfer, and Phonological Awareness. Applied Psycholinguistics, 28, 425-439.
[116] Wade-Woolley, L., & Geva, E. (2000). Processing Novel Phonemic Contrasts in the Acquisition of L2 Word Reading. Scientific Studies of Reading, 4, 295-311.
[117] Wade-Woolley, L., & Siegel, L. S. (1997). The Spelling Performance of ESL and Native Speakers of English as a Function of Reading Skill. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 9, 387-406.
[118] Wagner, R. K., & Barker, T. A. (1994). The Development of Orthographic Processing Ability. In V. W. Berninger (Ed.), The Varieties of Orthographic Knowledge, 1: Theoretical and Developmental Issues (Vol. 8, pp. 243-276). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
[119] Wang, M., Cheng, C. X., & Chen, S. W. (2006). Contribution of Morphological Awareness to Chinese-English Biliteracy Acquisition. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98, 542-553.
[120] Wang, M., Ko, I. Y., & Choi, J. (2009). The Importance of Morphological Awareness in Korean-English Biliteracy Acquisition. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 34, 132-142.
[121] Wang, M., Koda, K., & Perfetti, C. A. (2003). Alphabetic and Non-Alphabetic L1 Effects in English Semantic Processing: A Comparison of Korean and Chinese English L2 learners. Cognition, 87, 129-149.
[122] Wang, M., Park, Y. J., & Lee, K. R. (2006). Korean-English Biliteracy Acquisition: Cross Language and Orthography Transfer. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98, 148-158.
[123] Zhang, D., & Koda, K. (2008). Contributions of L1 Reading Sub-Skills to L2 Development in English as a Foreign Language among Reading School-Aged Learners. Indonesian Journal of English Teaching, 4, 1-17.
[124] Ziegler, J. C., & Goswami, U. (2005). Reading Acquisition, Developmental Dyslexia, and Skilled Reading across Languages: A Psycholinguistic Grain Size Theory. Psychological Bulletin, 131, 3-29.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.