Extraction of Total Phenolic Compounds, Flavonoids, Anthocyanins and Tannins from Grape Byproducts by Response Surface Methodology. Influence of Solid-Liquid Ratio, Particle Size, Time, Temperature and Solvent Mixtures on the Optimization Process

DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.54048   PDF   HTML   XML   9,294 Downloads   13,199 Views   Citations

Abstract

The current work concerns the optimization process of phenolic compounds solid liquid extraction from grape byproducts at high temperatures and short incubation times. The effect of five experimental parameters (solidliquid ratio, particle size, time, temperature and solvent mixture) mostly believed to affect the extraction process was undertaken. A first response surface methodology experimental design was used to optimize the solid-liquid ratio and milling time parameters. A second design was used for the optimization of the quantitative and qualitative parameters. The quantitative parameters studied are: total phenolic compounds, flavonoid content, total monomeric anthocyanin composition and tannin concentration. The qualitative parameters analyzed are: antiradical activity and antioxidant capacity. The second design was based on the use of time, temperature and solvent mixture as optimization parameters. The assays were first conducted separately revealing the best experimental conditions for the maximization of each response variable alone. A simultaneous response surface methodology of all the responses taken together was then conducted, showing the optimal extraction conditions to be: 93 minutes at 94?C and in 66% ethanol/water solvent. The maximal response values obtained for each parameter are: Total Phenolic Compounds yield (5.5 g GAE/100g DM), Flavonoid Content (5.4 g GAE/100g DM), Total Monomeric Anthocyanin yield (70.3 mg/100g DM), Tannin Concentration (12.3 g/L), Antiradical Activity (67.3%) and Total Antioxidant Capacity (393 mgAAE/L). All of the optimal values were acquired at 3 mL/g solid-liquid ratio and 6.8 min milling time. The obtained extracts could be used as natural bioactive compounds in several industrial applications.

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H. Rajha, N. Darra, Z. Hobaika, N. Boussetta, E. Vorobiev, R. Maroun and N. Louka, "Extraction of Total Phenolic Compounds, Flavonoids, Anthocyanins and Tannins from Grape Byproducts by Response Surface Methodology. Influence of Solid-Liquid Ratio, Particle Size, Time, Temperature and Solvent Mixtures on the Optimization Process," Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 5 No. 4, 2014, pp. 397-409. doi: 10.4236/fns.2014.54048.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

References

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