Multiple Response Optimization of High Temperature, Low Time Aqueous Extraction Process of Phenolic Compounds from Grape Byproducts

DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.54042   PDF   HTML     4,115 Downloads   5,648 Views   Citations

Abstract

In this study phenolic compounds extraction from grape byproducts was conducted using pure water as a solvent. High temperatures and low time incubation periods were used in the aim of reducing the cost of the process and heightening the phenolic compounds yield. Response surface methodology (RSM) was realized to study the effect of time and temperature on crushed and uncrushed grape pomace. The phenolic content was evaluated considering the quantity (total phenolics (TPC), flavonoids (FC), total monomeric anthocyanins (TMA) and tannins (TC)), and quality (antiradical activity (AA) and antioxidant capacity (AC)) of the extracts. High temperature low time extraction design used in this study was compared to the extraction process at moderate temperatures with relatively long periods of time. This was proved to ameliorate the quantitative extraction of phenolic compounds from grape pomace without affecting their bioactivity. Moreover, multiple response optimization showed the optimal extraction parameters to be 81?C and 140 minutes for the unmilled pomace samples, and 88?C and 5 minutes for the milled. TPC, FC, TMA, TC, AA and AC are almost the same for both optimums. Thus the possibility of replacing the milling process by the extraction time prolongation (for the unmilled pomace) of 135 minutes seems to be very plausible. HPLC analysis showed different quantity and diversity of extracted phenolics for the optimums. However this difference did not significantly affect the overall activity, showing that PC in the different extracts act in complete synergy all together leading to important biological properties. The obtained results using the extraction strategy adopted in this work could lead to several industrial applications.

Share and Cite:

H. Rajha, N. Louka, N. Darra, Z. Hobaika, N. Boussetta, E. Vorobiev and R. Maroun, "Multiple Response Optimization of High Temperature, Low Time Aqueous Extraction Process of Phenolic Compounds from Grape Byproducts," Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 5 No. 4, 2014, pp. 351-360. doi: 10.4236/fns.2014.54042.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

References

[1] G. Spigno, T. Pizzorno and D. M. De Faveri, “Cellulose and Hemicelluloses Recovery from Grape Stalks,” Bioresource Technology, Vol. 99, No. 10, 2008, pp. 43294337.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2007.08.044
[2] S. O. Prozil, D. V. Evtuguin and L. P. C. Lopes, “Chemical Composition of Grape Stalks of Vitis vinifera L. from Red Grape Pomaces,” Industrial Crops Products, Vol. 35, No. 1, 2012, pp. 178-184.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2011.06.035
[3] A. J. Shrikhande, “Wine By-Products with Health Benefits,” Food Research International, Vol. 33, No. 6, 2000, pp. 469-474.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0963-9969(00)00071-5
[4] M. Careri, C. Corradini, L. Elviri, I. Nicoletti and I. Zagnoni, “Direct HPLC Analysis of Quercetin and TransResveratrol in Red Wine, Grape, and Winemaking Byproducts,” Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, Vol. 51, No. 18, 2003, pp. 5226-5231.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf034149g
[5] V. Amico, E. M. Napoli, A. Renda, G. Ruberto, C. Spatafora and C. Tringali, “Constituents of Grape Pomace from the Sicilian Cultivar ‘Nerello Mascalese’,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 88, No. 4, 2004, pp. 599-607.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.02.022
[6] G. Ruberto, A. Renda, C. Daquino, V. Amico, C. Spatafora, C. Tringali and N. De Tommasi, “Polyphenol Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Grape Pomace Extracts from Five Sicilian Red Grape Cultivars,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 100, No. 1, 2007, pp. 203-210.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.09.041
[7] V. K. Joshi and M. P. Devi, “Resveratrol: Importance, Role, Contents in Wine and Factors Influencing Its Production,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences India. Section B, Vol. 79, No. 3, 2009, pp. 212-226.
[8] Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament (CCE), “Towards a Sustainable European Wine Sector,” Brussels, 2006.
[9] G. Spigno and D. M. De Faveri, “Antioxidants from Grape Stalks and Marc: Influence of Extraction Procedure on Yield, Purity and Antioxidant Power of the Extracts,” Journal of Food Engineering, Vol. 78, No. 3, 2007, pp. 793-801.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2005.11.020
[10] L. Ping, N. Brosse, L. Chrusciel, P. Navarrete and A. Pizzi, “Extraction of Condensed Tannins from Grape Pomace for Use as Wood Adhesives,” Industrial Crops and Products, Vol. 33, No. 1, 2011, pp. 253-257.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2010.10.007
[11] L. Ping, A. Pizzi, Z. D. Guo and N. Brosse, “Condensed Tannins Extraction from Grape Pomace: Characterization and Utilization as Wood Adhesives for Wood Particleboard,” Industrial Crops and Products, Vol. 34, No. 1, 2011, pp. 907-914.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2011.02.009
[12] E. Barzana, D. Rubio, R. I. Santamaria, O. Garcia-Correa, F. Garcia, V. E. Ridaura-Sanz and A. López-Munguía, “Enzyme-mediated Solvent Extraction of Carotenoids from Marygold Flower (Tagetes erecta),” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 50, No. 16, 2002, pp. 4491-4496. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf025550q
[13] G. E. P. Box and K. B. Wilson, “On the Experimental Attainment of Optimum Conditions,” Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Vol. 13, No. 1, 1951, pp. 1-45.
[14] R. H. Myers and D. C. Montgomery, “Response Surface Methodology: Process and Product Optimization Using Designed Experiments,” 2nd Edition, Wiley, New York, 2002.
[15] H. N. Rajha, N. El Darra, E. Vorobiev, N. Louka and R. G. Maroun, “An Environment Friendly, Low-Cost Extraction Process of Phenolic Compounds from Grape Byproducts. Optimization by Multi-Response Surface Methodology,” Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 4, No. 6, 2013, pp. 650-659.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/fns.2013.46084
[16] G. Spigno, L. Tramelli and M. De Faveri, “Effects of Extraction Time, Temperature and Solvent on Concentration and Antioxidant Activity of Grape Marc Phenolics,” Journal of Food Engineering, Vol. 81, No. 1, 2007, pp. 200-208.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2006.10.021
[17] M. Pinelo, M. Rubilar, M. Jerez, J. Sineiro and M. J. Nunez, “Effect of Solvent, Temperature, and Solvent-toSolid Ratio on the Total Phenolic Content and Antiradical Activity of Extracts from Different Components of Grape Pomace,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 53, No. 6, 2005, pp. 2111-2117.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf0488110
[18] K. Slinkard and V. L. Singleton, “Total Phenol Analysis: Automation and Comparison with Manual Methods,” American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, Vol. 28, No. 1, 1977, pp. 49-55.
[19] M. A. Amerine and C. S. Ough, “Methods for Analysis of Musts and Wines,” Wiley, New York, 1980.
[20] M. M. Giusti and R. E. Wrolstad, “Characterization and Measurement of Anthocyanins by UV-Visible Spectroscopy,” In: Current Protocols in Food Analytical Chemistry, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2001.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/0471142913.faf0102s00
[21] P. Ribéreau-Gayon, D. Dubourdieu and B. Donèche, “Traité d’onologie, Tome 2,” 6th Edition, Chimie du Vin, Stabilisation et Traitements, Dunod, 1998.
[22] P. Preito, M. Pineda and M. Aguilar, “Spectrphotometric Quantitation of Antioxidant Capacity through the Formation of a Phosphomolybdenum Complex: Specific Application to the Determination of Vitamin E,” Analytical Biochemistry, Vol. 269, No. 2, 1999, pp. 337-341.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/abio.1999.4019
[23] M. A. Gyamfi, M. Yonamine and Y. Aniya, “Free Radical Scavenging Action of Medicinal Herbs from Ghana: Thonningiasanguinea on Experimentally-Induced Liver Injuries,” General Pharmacology: The Vascular System, Vol. 32, No. 6, 1999, pp. 661-667.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0306-3623(98)00238-9
[24] S. Kallithraka, A. A.-A. Mohdaly, D. P. Makris and P. Kefalas, “Determination of Major Anthocyanin Pigments in Hellenic Native Grape Varieties (Vitis vinifera sp.): Association with Antiradical Activity,” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, Vol. 18, No. 5, 2005, pp. 375386.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2004.02.010
[25] P. Ho, T. A. Hogg and M. C. M. Silva, “Application of a Liquid Chromatography for the Determination of Phenolic Compounds and Furans in Fortified Wines,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 64, No. 1, 1999, pp. 115-122.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(98)00115-0
[26] L. Ramos, E. M. Kristenson and U. A. T. Brinkman, “Current Use of Pressurised Liquid Extraction and Subcritical Water Extraction in Environmental Analysis,” Journal of Chromatography A, Vol. 975, No. 1, 2002, pp. 3-29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(02)01336-5
[27] B. E. Richter, “Extraction of Hydrocarbon Contamination from Soils Using Accelerated Solvent Extraction,” Journal of Chromatography A, Vol. 874, No. 2, 2000, pp. 217-224.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)00073-X
[28] J. E. Cacace and G. Mazza, “Mass Transfer Process during Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Milled Berries,” Journal of Food Engineering, Vol. 59, No. 4, 2003, pp. 379-389.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0260-8774(02)00497-1
[29] B. Pekic, V. Kovac, E. Alonso and E. Revilla, “Study of the Extraction of Proanthocyanidins from Grape Seeds,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 61, No. 1-2, 1998, pp. 201-206.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(97)00128-3
[30] B. Lapornik, M. Prosek and A. Golc Wondra, “Comparison of Extracts Prepared from Plant By-Products Using Different Solvents and Extraction Time,” Journal of Food Engineering, Vol. 71, No. 2, 2005, pp. 214-222.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2004.10.036
[31] G. K. Jayaprakasha, R. P. Singh and K. K. Sakariah, “Antioxidant Activity of Grape Seed (Vitis vinifera) Extracts on Peroxidation Models in Vitro,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 73, No. 3, 2001, pp. 285-290.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(00)00298-3
[32] F. Bonilla, M. Mayen, J. Merida and M. Medina, “Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Red Grape Marc for Use as Food Lipid Antioxidants,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 66, No. 2, 1999, pp. 209-215.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(99)00046-1
[33] Y. Yilmaz and R. T. Toledo, “Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacities of Grape/Wine Industry By-Products and Effect of Solvent Type on Extraction of Grape Seed Polyphenols,” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, Vol. 19, No. 1, 2006, pp. 41-48.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2004.10.009
[34] Z. L. Sheng, P. F. Wan, C. L. Dong and Y. H. Li, “Optimization of Total Flavonoids Content Extracted from Flospopuli Using Response Surface Methodology,” Industrial Crops and Products, Vol. 43, 2013, pp. 778-786.
[35] R. L. Jackman, R. Y. Yada, M. A. Tung and R. Speers, “Anthocyanins as Food Colorants—A Review,” Journal of Food Biochemistry, Vol. 11, No. 3, 1987, pp. 201-247.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4514.1987.tb00123.x
[36] D. L. Connolly, “Tannin Extraction,” US Patent No. 5 238 680, 1993.
[37] H. N. Rajha, N. El Darra, N. Louka, R. G. Maroun, W. Ziegler and H. Bochzelt, “Valorization of Industrial Waste Using Energy Saving Procedures. Phenolic Compounds Purification from Grape By-Products by Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE),” Proceedings of the International Conference on Renewable Energies for Developing Countries, Beirut, 28-29 November 2012, pp. 1-5.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.