Heck Reactions with Ultralow Concentration of Transition Metals under Microwave Irradiation


The Heck coupling reactions of aryl halides and olefins were performed under the microwave assistance. Interestingly, the ultralow concentration of transition metals (in ppb) coming from the reactants could catalyze the Heck coupling reactions under microwave irradiation, without addition of any catalysts, ligands and phase-transfer agents. The influences of bases, solvents and temperature were discussed, and the reaction rate was enhanced largely in the mixed solvents of NMP and water due to the solubility of base in water.

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H. Wang, H. Cheng and F. Zhao, "Heck Reactions with Ultralow Concentration of Transition Metals under Microwave Irradiation," Green and Sustainable Chemistry, Vol. 4 No. 1, 2014, pp. 1-6. doi: 10.4236/gsc.2014.41001.

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The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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