Share This Article:

Tenofovir Renal Toxicity: Evaluation of Cohorts and Clinical Studies—Part 2

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:260KB) PP. 97-111
DOI: 10.4236/pp.2014.51015    3,748 Downloads   5,734 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Tenofovir is a nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor used as part of antiretroviral regimens. It is well tolerated with relative toxicological effects but recent reports have linked it with renal toxicity which is of clinical concern. This study reviews literary work on tenofovir renal toxicity with more light on case reports. Tenofovir renal toxicity manifests as Fanconi’s syndrome, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and acute renal failure. Fanconi’s syndrome is characterised by acidosis, protenuria, albuminuria, aminoaciduria, hyperchloremic, metabolic acidosis, hypouricemia, hypophosphatemia and glycosuria. The presence of urine osmolality, polydipsia and polyuria could give credence totenofovir induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. In some cases of tenofovir renal toxicity, renal biopsy revealed sclerosed glomeruli with ischemic injury including portal collapse of capillary loops. Histopathological changes in glumeruli include mild mesangial proliferation, increased mesangial matrix and thickened capillary loops. Moderate degenerative tubular changes, loss of tubular mass, interstitial scarring and scattered cellular infiltrates. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions may occur with the co administration of tenofovir with non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, aminoglycosides and some protease inhibitors which may potentiate renal toxicity. Tenofovir renal toxicity is associated with some risk factors including genetic polymorphism as supported by dichotomy in renal toxicity among different race and the association between ABCC2 gene and tenofovir kidney tubular dysfunction. The pharmacology of tenofovir renal toxicity is unclear but it is attributed to the interaction between tenofovir and theorganic anion transporters (hOAT1, and to a lesser extent, OAT3) favoring intracellular accumulation in renal proximal tubule cells. This may lead to ultrastructural mitochondrial abnormalities and decreased mtDNA levels which could stimulate reactive oxygen species production, depletion of antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes. These processes can stimulate the destruction of biomolecules such as DNA, proteins, and lipids, thus causing the deregulation of redox-sensitive metabolic pathways, signaling pathways, and cell death. Despite tenofovir renal toxicity it has achieved notable therapeutic success nevertheless patients on tenofovir containing regimens should be monitored for renal function parameters. Co administration with potential nephrotoxic drugs should be avoided except when benefit outweighs risk.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

A. Elias, O. Ijeoma, N. Jonathan Edikpo, D. Oputiri and O. Geoffrey, "Tenofovir Renal Toxicity: Evaluation of Cohorts and Clinical Studies—Part 2," Pharmacology & Pharmacy, Vol. 5 No. 1, 2014, pp. 97-111. doi: 10.4236/pp.2014.51015.

References

[1] “Principles and Methods for the Assessment of Nephrotoxicity Associated with Exposure to Chemicals,” International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, Geneva, 1991.
[2] N. Anzai and H. Endou, “Drug Transport in the Kidney, in Drug Transporters Molecular Characterization and Role in Drug Disposition,” John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New Jersey, 2007, pp. 463-493.
[3] N. Anzai and H. Endou, “Renal Drug Transporters and Nephrotoxicity,” Proceedings of 6th World Congress on Alternatives & Animal Use in the Life Sciences, 21-25 August 2007, Tokyo, AATEX 14, Special Issue, pp. 447-452.
[4] T. Cihlar, E. S. Ho, D. C. Lin and A. S. Mulato, “Human Renal Organic Anion Transporter 1 (hOAT1) and Its Role in the Nephrotoxicity of Antiviral Nucleotide Analogs,” Nucleosides, Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids, Vol. 20, No. 4-7, 2001, pp. 641-648.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.00251-06
[5] A. S. Ray, T. Cihlar, K. L. Robinson, et al., “Mechanism of Active Renal Tubular Efflux of Tenofovir,” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Vol. 50, No. 10, 2006, pp. 3297-3304. http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.00251-06
[6] S. Rodriguez-Nvoa, E. Alvarez, P. Labarga and V. Soriano, “Renal Toxicity Associated with Tenofovir Use,” Expert Opinion on Drug Safety, Vol. 9, No. 4, 2010, pp. 545-559. http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/14740331003627458
[7] B. Fernandez-Fernandez, A. Montoya-Ferrer, A. B. Sanz, M. D. Sanchez-Nino and M. C. Izquierdo, “Tenofovir Nephrotoxicity: Update,” AIDS Research and Treatment, Vol. 2011, 2011, pp. 1-11.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/354908
[8] B. S. Rifkin and M. A. Perazella, “Tenofovir-Associated Nephrotoxicity: Fanconi Syndrome and Renal Failure,” American Journal of Medicine, Vol. 117, No. 4, 2004, pp. 282-284. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2004.03.025
[9] S. Coca and M. A. Perazella, “Acute Renal Failure Associated with Tenofovir: Evidence of Drug-Induced Nephrotoxicity,” American Journal of Medical Science, Vol. 324, No. 6, 2002, pp. 342-344.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ki.2010.318
[10] L. C. Herlitz, S. Mohan, M. B. Stokes, J. Radhakrishnan, V. D. D’Agati and G. S. Markowitz, “Tenofovir Nephrotoxicity: Acute Tubular Necrosis with Distinctive Clinical, Pathological, and Mitochondrial Abnormalities,” Kidney International, Vol. 78, No. 11, 2010, pp. 1171-1177.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ki.2010.318
[11] M. A. Perazella, “Tenofovir-Induced Kidney Disease an Acguired Renal Tubular Mitochondriopathy,” Kidney International, Vol. 78, 2010, pp. 1060-1063.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ki.2010.344
[12] E. Daugas, J. P. Rougier and G. Hill, “HAART-Related Nephropathies in HIV-Infected Patients,” Kidney International, Vol. 67, 2005, pp. 393-403.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1755.2005.67096.x
[13] J. J. Bourgoignie, R. Meneses, C. Ortiz, D. Jaffe and V. Pardo, “The Clinical Spectrum of Renal Disease Associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus,” American Journal of Kidney Disease, Vol. 12, No. 2, 1998, pp. 131-137.
[14] A. Laradi, A. Mallet, H. Beaufils, M. Allouache and F. Martinez, “HIV Associated Nephropathy: Outcome and Prognosis Factors. Groupe d’Etudes Nephrologiques d’Ile de France,” Journal of American Society of Nephrology, Vol. 9, No. 12, 1998, pp. 2327-2335.
[15] T. S. Ahuja, M. Borucki, M. Funtanilla, V. Shahinian, M. Hollander and S. Rajaraman, “Is the Prevalence of HIV-Associated Nephropathy Decreasing?” American Journal of Nephrology, Vol. 19, 1999, pp. 655-659.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000013537
[16] M. J. Ross, L. A. Bruggeman, P. D. Wilson and P. E. Klotman, “Microcyst Formation and HIV-1 Gene Expression Occur in Multiple Nephron Segments in HIV-Associated Nephropathy,” Journal of American Society of Nephrology, Vol. 12, No. 12, 2001, pp. 2645-2651.
[17] D. Marras, L. A. Bruggeman, F. Gao, et al, “Replication and Compartmentalization of HIV-1 in Kidney Epithelium of Patients with HIV Associated Nephropathy,” Nature Medicine, Vol. 8, No. 5, 2002, pp. 522-526.
[18] P. L. Kimmel, L. Barisoni and J. B. Kopp, “Pathogenesis and Treatment of HIV Associated Renal Diseases: Lessons from Clinical and Animal Studies, Molecular Pathologic Correlations, and Genetic Investigations,” Annals of Internal Medicine, Vol. 139, No. 3, 2003, pp. 214-227.
http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-139-3-200308050-00019
[19] S. Casanova, G. Mazzucco, G. Barbiano di Belgiojoso, et al., “Pattern of Glomerular Involvement in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients: An Italian Study,” American Journal of Kidney Disease Vol. 26, No. 3, 1995, pp. 446-453.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0272-6386(95)90490-5
[20] R. V. Boccia, E. P. Gelmann, C. C. Baker, G. Marti and D. L. Longo, “A Hemolyticuremic Syndrome with the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome,” Annals of Internal Medicine, Vol. 101, No. 5, 1984, pp. 716-717.
http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-101-5-716_2
[21] J. Cuttner, “Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura: A Ten Year Experience,” Blood, Vol. 56, No. 2, 1908, pp. 302-306.
[22] R. M. Petitt, “Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura: A Thirty Year Review,” Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis, Vol. 6, No. 4, 1980, pp. 350-355.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-1005108
[23] T. J. Torok, R. C. Holman and T. L. Chorba, “Increasing Mortality from Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura in the United States. Analysis of National Mortality Data, 1968-1991,” American Journal of Hematology, Vol. 50, No. 2, 1995, pp. 84-90.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.2830500203
[24] M. Noris and G. Remuzzi, “Atypical Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome,” New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 361, 2009, pp. 1676-1687.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra0902814
[25] A. C. Alpers, “Light at the End of the TUNEL: HIV-Associated Thrombotic Microangiopathy,” Kidney International, Vol. 63, 2003, pp. 385-396.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1755.2003.00743.x
[26] J. S. Berns, “Haemolytic Uraemic Syndrome and Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura Associated with HIV Infection, in Renal and Urologic Aspects of HIV Infection,” Churchill Livingstone, New York, 1995, pp. 111-134.
[27] P. Coppo and A. Veyradier, “Thrombotic Microangiopathies: Towards a Pathophysiology-Based Classification-Cardiovascular & Haematological Disorders,” Drug Targets, Vol. 9, No. 1, 2009, pp. 36-50.
[28] M. C. Wyatt and P. E. Klotman, “HIV-1 and HIV-Associated Nephropathy 25 Years Later,” Clinical Journal of American Society of Nephrology, Vol. 2, Suppl. 1, 2007, pp. 20-24. http://dx.doi.org/10.2215/CJN.03561006
[29] E. J. Schwartz, L. A. Szczech, M. J. Ross, M. E. Klotman, et al., “HAART and the Epidemic of HIV End Stage Renal Disease,” Journal of American Society of Nephrology, Vol. 16, No. 8, 2005, pp. 2412-2420.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2005040340
[30] R. K. Wali, C. I. Drachenberg, J. C. Papadimitriou, S. Keay and E. Ramos, “HIV-1-Associated Nephropathy and Response to Highly-Active Antiretroviral Therapy,” Lancet, Vol. 352, No. 9130, 1998, pp. 783-784.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(98)24037-2
[31] J. A. Winston, L. A. Bruggeman, M. D. Ross, J. Jacobson and J. Ross, “Nephropathy and Establishment of a Renal Reservoir of HIV Type 1 during Primary Infection,” New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 344, 2001, pp. 1979-1984. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM200106283442604
[32] L. A. Szczech, L. J. Edwards, L. L. Sanders, C. van der Horst, et al., “Protease Inhibitors Are Associated with a Slowed Progression of HIV-Related Renal Diseases,” Clinical Nephrology, Vol. 57, 2002, pp. 336-341.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5414/CNP57336
[33] C. J. Cosgrove, A. K. Abu-Alfa and M. A. Perezella, “Observations on HIV Associated Renal Diseases in the Era of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy,” American Journal of Medical Sciences, Vol. 323, No. 2, 2002, pp. 102-106.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00000441-200202000-00009
[34] A. Reid, W. Stohr, S. Walker, F. Ssali, P. Munderi and C. Gilks, (on Behalf of the DART Trial), “Glomerular Dysfunction and Associated Risk Factors Following Initiation of ART in Adults with HIV Infection in Africa,” XVI International AIDS Conference, Toronto, 13-18 August 2006.
[35] C. Burckle, J. Medioni, D. Nochy, et al., “HIV-Associated Nephropathy: Outcome and Prognosis Factors since the Introduction of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy-GENIF,” Journal of American Society Nephrology, Vol. 13, 2002, p. 381A.
[36] M. G. Atta, J. E. Gallant, M. H. Rahman, N. Nagajothi, L. C. Racusen, P. J. Scheel and D. M. Fine, “Antiretroviral Therapy in the Treatment of HIV-Associated Nephropathy,” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, Vol. 21, No. 10, 2006, pp. 2809-2813.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfl337
[37] J. J. Scialla, M. G. Atta and D. M. Fine, “Relapse of HIV-Associated Nephropathy after Discontinuing Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy,” AIDS, Vol. 21, No. 2, 2007, pp. 263-264.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0b013e3280119592
[38] G. M. Lucas, J. A. Eustace, S. Sozio, E. K. Mentari, K. A. Appiah and R. D. Moore, “Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy and the Incidence of HIV-1-Associated Nephropathy: A 12-Year Cohort Study,” AIDS, Vol. 18, No. 3, 2004, pp. 541-546.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00002030-200402200-00022
[39] B. Murphy, L. Carlson, S. Rohal, M. Keller, A. Lu, M. S. A. Kumar, et al., “Renal Transplantation in HIV-Infected Recipients: Twenty-Three Cases in the HAART Era,” Journal of American Society of Nephrology, Vol. 13, 2002, p. 11A.
[40] J. T. Kircher, “Resolution of Renal Failure after Initiation of HAART, 3 Cases and a Discussion of the Literature,” AIDS Read, Vol. 12, No. 3, 2002, pp. 103-105,110-112.
[41] J. S. Herman, N. J. Ives, M. Nelson, B. G. Gazzard and P. J. Easterbook, “Incidence and Risk Factor for Development of Indinavir-Associated Renal Implications,” Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, Vol. 48, No. 3, 2001, pp. 355-360. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/48.3.355
[42] J. P. Dieleman, M. C. Sturkenboom, M. Jambroes, I. C. Gyssens, G.-J. Weverling, J. H. ten Veen, G. Schrey, P. Reiss and B. H. Ch. Stricker, “Risk Factor for Urological Symptoms in a Cohort of Users of HIV Protease Inhibitors Indinavir Sulphate the ATHENA Cohort,” JAMA Internal Medicine, Vol. 162, No. 13, 2002, pp. 1493-1501.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archinte.162.13.1493
[43] J. B. Kopp, K. D. Miller A. J. Mican, et al., “Urinary Stones in HIV-1-Positive Patients Treated with Indinavir,” Lancet, Vol. 349, No. 9061, 1294, pp. 1294-1295.
[44] K. Boubaker, P. Sudre, F. Bally, G. Vogel, J. Y. Meuwly, M. P. Glauser, et al., “Changes in Renal Function Associated with Indinavir,” AIDS, Vol. 12, 1998, pp. 249-254.
[45] Merck and Co, “Crixivan (Indinavir Sulphate) Product Monograph,” Merk and Co, West Point, 1997.
[46] J. B. Kopp, K. D. Miller, J. A. Milan, I. M. Feuerstein, E. Vaughan, C. Baker, L. K. Pannell and J. Falloon, “Crystalluria and Urinary Tract Abnormalities Associated with Indinavir,” Annals of Internal Medicine, Vol. 127, No. 2, 1997, pp. 119-125.
http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-127-2-199707150-00004
[47] R. F. Gangnon, S. N. Tecimer, A. K. Waters and C. M. Tsoukas, “Prospective Study of Urinalysis Abnormalities in HIV-Positive Individuals Treated with Indinavir,” American Journal of Kidney Disease, Vol. 36, No. 3, 2000, pp. 507-515. http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/ajkd.2000.9791
[48] P. Meravigla, E. Angeli, F. Del Sorbo, G. Rombolà, P. Viganò, G. Orlando, L. Cordier, I. Faggion and A. Cargnel, “Risk Factors for Indinavir-Related Renal Colic in HIV Patients: Predictive Value of Indinavir Dose/Body Mass Index,” AIDS, Vol. 16, No. 15, 2002, pp. 2089-2093.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00002030-200210180-00019
[49] A. Avihingsanon, Y. Avihingsanon, P. Darnpornprasert, S. Kerr and C. Ungsedhapand, C. Duncombe, S. Ubolyam, K. Ruxrungtham and P. Phanuphak, “High Prevalence of Indinavir-Associated Renal Complications in Thai HIV-Infected Patients,” Journal of Medical Association of Thailand, Vol. 89, No. 2, 2006, pp. S21-S27.
[50] M. Jaradat, C. Philips, M. N. Yum, H. Cushing and S. Moe, “Acute Tubuloinsterstitial Nephritis Attributed to Indinavir Therapy,” American Journal of Kidney Disease, Vol. 35, No. 4, 2000, p. E16.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0272-6386(00)70034-5
[51] A. M. Van Rossum, J. P. Dieleman and P. L. Fraaij, K. Cransberg, N. G. Hartwig, D. M. Burger, I. C. Gyssens and R. de Groot, “Persistent Sterile Leukocyturia Is Associated with Impaired Renal Function inHuman Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Infected Children Treated With Indinavir,” Pediatrics, Vol. 110, No. 2, 2002, p. e19.
[52] M. Daudon, L. Estepa, J. P. Viard, D. Joly and P. Jungers, “Urinary Stones in HIV-1-Positive Patient Treated with Indinavir,” Lancet, Vol. 349, No. 9061, 1997, pp. 1294-1295. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(05)62506-8
[53] H. Hanabusa, H. Tagami and H. Hataya, “Renal Atrophy Associated with Long-Term Treatment with Indinavir,” New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 340, 1999, pp. 392-393.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199902043400515
[54] U. C. Brewster and M. A. Perazella, “Acute Interstitial Nephritis Associated with Atazanavir, a New Protease Inhibitor,” American Journal of Kidney Disease, Vol. 44, No. 5, 2004, pp. e81-e84.
[55] S. Schmid, M. Opravil, M. Moddel, M. Huber, R. Pfammatter, G. Keusch, P. Ambuhl, R. P. Wuthrich, H. Moch and Z. Varga, “Acute Interstitial Nephritis of HIV Positive Patients under Atazanavir and Tenofovir Therapy in a Retrospective Analysis of Kidney Biopsies,” Virchows Archiv, Vol. 450, No. 6, 2007, pp. 665-670.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00428-007-0418-3
[56] K. Chan-Tack, M. Truffa, K. Struble and D. Birnkrant, “Atazanavir-Associated Nephrolithiasis: Cases from the US Food and Drug Administration’s Event Reporting System,” AIDS, Vol. 21, No. 9, 2007, pp. 1215-1218.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0b013e32813aee35
[57] S. Chugh, R. Bird and E. A. Alexander, “Ritonavir and Renal Failure,” New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 336, 1997, p. 138.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199701093360214
[58] M. V. Bochet, C. Jacquiaud, M. A. Valantin, C. Katlama and G. Deray, “Renal Insufficiency Induced by Ritonavir in HIV-Infected Patients,” American Journal of Medicine, Vol. 105, No. 5, 1998, p. 457.
[59] M. Duong, C. Sgro, M. Grappin, F. Biron and A. Boibieux, “Renal Failure after Treatment with Ritonavir,” Lancet, Vol. 348, No. 9028, 1996, p. 693.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(05)65125-2
[60] J. Roling, H. Schmid, M. Fischereder, R. Draenert and F. D. Goebel, “HIV-Associated Renal Diseases and Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy—Induced Nephropathy,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, Vol. 42, No. 10, 2006, pp. 1488-1495. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/503566
[61] A. Angel-Moreno-Maroto, L. Suarez-Castellano, M. Hernandez-Cabrera and J. L. Perez-Arellano, “Severe Efavirenz-Induced Hypersensitivity Syndrome (not-DRESS) with Acute Renal Failure,” Journal of Infectious, Vol. 52, No. 2, 2006, pp. e39-e40.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2005.05.020
[62] H. Izzedine, V. Launay-Vacher and G. Deray, “Fanconi Syndrome Associated with Didanosine Therapy,” AIDS, Vol. 19, No. 8, 2005, pp. 844-845.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.aids.0000168985.05209.b8
[63] “International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, Some Antiviral and Antineoplastic Drugs, and Other Pharmaceutical Agents,” International Agency for Research on Cancer Scientific Publication, Vol. 76, 2000.
[64] A. A. Morris, S. V. Baudouin and M. H. Snow, “Renal Tubular Acidosis and Hypophosphataemia after Treatment with Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors,” AIDS, Vol. 15, No. 1, 2001, pp. 140-141.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00002030-200101050-00027
[65] M. Krishnan, R. Nair, M. Haas and M. G. Atta, “Acute Renal Failure in an HIV-Positive 50-Year-Old Man,’’ American Journal of Kidney Disease, Vol. 36, No. 5, 2000, pp. 1075-1078. http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/ajkd.2000.19114
[66] H. O. Es, D. C. Lin, D. B. Mendel and T. Cihar, “Cytotoxicity of Antiviral Nucleotide Adefovir and Cidofovir Is Induced by Expression of Human Renal Organ Anion Transporter,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, Vol. 11, No. 3, 2000, pp. 383-393.
[67] P. Meier, S. Dautheville-Guibal, P. M. Ronco and J. Rossert, “Cidofovir Induced End Stage Renal Failure,” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, Vol. 17, No. 1, 2002, pp. 148-149. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/17.1.148
[68] N. Tanji, K. Tanji, N. Kambham, G. S. Markowitz, A. Bell and V. D. D’Agati, “Adefovir Nephrotoxicity: Possible Role of Mitochondria DNA Depletion,” Human Pathology, Vol. 32, No. 7, 2001, pp. 734-740.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/hupa.2001.25586
[69] K. C. Cundy, “Clinical Pharmacokinetics of Antiviral Nucleotides Adefovir and Cidofovir,” Clinical Pharmacokinetics,” Vol. 36, No. 2, 1999, pp. 127-143.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/00003088-199936020-00004
[70] K. E. Earle, T. Seneviratne, J. Shaker and D. Sboback, “Fanconi’s Syndrome in HIV1 Adults: Report of Three Cases and Literature Review,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, Vol. 19, No. 5, 2004, pp. 714-721.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1359/jbmr.2004.19.5.714
[71] R. C. Morris Jr., “An Experimental Renal Acidification Defect in Patients with Hereditary Fructose Intolerance: II. Its Distinction from Classic Renal Tubular Acidosis; Its Resemblance to the Renal Acidification Defect Associated with the Fanconi Syndrome of Children with Cystinosis,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, Vol. 47, No. 7, 1986, pp. 1648-1663.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI105856
[72] A. Nissenkorn, S. H. Korman, O. Vardi, A. Levine, Z. Katzir, A. Ballin and T. Lerman-Sagie, “Carnitine-Deficient Myopathy as a Presentation of Tyrosinemia Type I,” Journal of Child Neurology, Vol. 16, No. 9, 2001, pp. 642-644. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/088307380101600903
[73] D. Muller, R. Santer, M. Krawinkel, B. Christiansen and J. Schaub, “Fanconi-Bickel Syndrome Presenting in Neonatal Screening for Galactosaemia,” Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease, Vol. 20, No. 4, 1997, pp. 607-608.
[74] P. Monro, “Effect of Treatment on Renal Function in Severe Osteomalacia Due to Wilson’s Disease,” Journal of Clinical Pathology, Vol. 23, No. 6, pp. 487-491.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jcp.23.6.487
[75] N. M. Papadopoulos, R. Costello, L. Charnas, M. D. Adamson and W. A. Gahl, “Electrophoretic Examination of Proteinuria in Lowe’s Syndrome and Other Causes of Renal Tubular Fanconi Syndrome,” Clinical Chemistry, Vol. 35, No. 11, 1989, pp. 2231-2233.
[76] O. N. Elpeleg, “The Molecular Background of Glycogen Metabolism Disorders,” Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 12, No. 3, 1999, pp. 363-379. http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/JPEM.1999.12.3.363
[77] R. G. Adams, J. F. Harrison and P. Scott, “The Development of Cadmium-Induced Proteinuria, Impaired Renal Function, and Osteomalacia in Alkaline Battery Workers,” Quarterly Journal of Medicine, Vol. 38, No. 152, 1969, pp. 425-443.
[78] D. S. Rao, A. M. Parfitt, A. R. Villanueva and P. J. Dorman and M. Kleerekoper, “Hypophosphatemic Osteomalacia and Adult Fanconi Syndrome Due to Light-Chain Nephropathy: Another Form of Oncogenous Osteomalacia,” American Journal of Medicine, Vol. 82, No. 2, 1987, pp. 333-338.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0002-9343(87)90081-7
[79] J. Z. Melnick, M. Baum and J. R. Thompson, “Aminoglycoside-Induced Fanconi’s Syndrome,” American Journal of Kidney Disease, Vol. 23, No. 1, 1994, pp. 118-122.
[80] J. Kapadia, S. Shah, C. Desai, M. Desai, S. Patel, A. N. Shah and R. K. Dikshit, “Tenofovir Induced Fanconi Syndrome: A Possible Pharmacokinetic Interaction,” Indian Journal of Pharmacology, Vol. 45, No. 2, 2013, pp. 191-192.
[81] J. M. Irizarry-Alvarado, J. P. Dwyer, L. M. Brumble, S. Alvarez and J. C. Mendez, “Proximal Tubular Dysfunction Associated with Tenofovir and Didanosine Causing Fanconi Syndrome and Diabetes Insipidus: A Report of 3 Cases,” The AIDS Reader, Vol. 19, No. 3, 2009, pp. 114-121.
[82] G. Mathew and S. J. Knaus, “Acquired Fanconi’s Syndrome Associated with Tenofovir Therapy,” Journal of General Internal Medicine, Vol. 21, No. 11, 2006, pp. C3-C5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1525-1497.2006.00518.x
[83] H. Peyrière, J. Reynes, I. Rouanet, N. Daniel, C. M. de Boever, J. M. Mauboussin, H. Leray, L. Moachon, D. Vincent and D. Salmon-Céron, “Renal Tubular Dysfunction Associated with Tenofovir Therapy: Report of 7 Cases,” Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, Vol. 35, No. 3, 2004, pp. 269-273.
[84] M. Saumoy, F. Vidal, J. Peraire, S. Sauleda, A. Vea, C. Viladés, E. Ribera and C. Richart, “ Proximal Tubular Kidney Damage and Tenofovir: A Role for Mitochondrial Toxicity?” AIDS, Vol. 18, No. 12, 2004, pp. 1741-1748.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.aids.0000131386.38103.37
[85] C. Creput, G. Gonzalez-Canali, G. Hill, C. Piketty, M. Kazatchkine and D. Nochy, “Renal Lesions in HIV-1-Positive Patient Treated with Tenofovir,” AIDS, Vol. 17, No. 6, 2003, pp. 935-937.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00002030-200304110-00026
[86] T. Olea, S. Azorin, C. Hevia, R, Regojo, M. Luz Picazo, et al., “Tenofovir-Induced Fanconi Syndrome and Renal Failure,” Portuguese Journal of Nephrology and Hypertension, Vol. 22, No. 3, 2008, pp. 267-269.
[87] P. P. Kapitsinou and N. Ansari, “Acute Renal Failure in an AIDS Patient on Tenofovir: A Case Report,” Journal of Medical Case Reports, Vol. 2, 2008, p. 94.
[88] B. Schaaf, S. P. Aries, E. Kramme, J. Steinhoff and K. Dalhoff, “Acute Renal Failure Associated with Tenofovir Treatment in a Patient with Adquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome,” Clinical Infectious Disease, Vol. 37, No. 3, 2003, pp. e41-e43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/376643
[89] S. M. Patel, T. R. Zembower, F. Palella, Y. S. Kanwar and S. N Ahya, “Early Onset of Tenofovir-Induced Renal Failure: Case Report and Review of the Literature,” Scientific World Journal, Vol. 7, 2007, pp. 1140-1148.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1100/tsw.2007.164
[90] J. C. Lee, and R. D. Marasok, “Acute Tubular Necrosis in a Patient Receiving Tenofovir,” AIDS, Vol. 17, No. 17, 2003, pp. 2543-2545.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00002030-200311210-00021
[91] A. E. Zimmermann, T. Pizzoferrato, J. Bedford, A. Morris, R. Hoffman and G. Braden, “Tenofovir-Associated Acute and Chronic Kidney Disease: A Case of Multiple Drug Interactions,” Clinical Infectious Disease, Vol. 42, No. 2, 2006, pp. 283-290.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/499048
[92] D. Verhelst, M. Monge, J. Meynard, B. Fouqueray, B. Mougenot, P.-M. Girard, P. Ronco and J. Rossert, “Fanconi’s Syndrome and Renal Failure Induced by Tenofovir: A First Case Report,” American Journal of Kidney Disease, Vol. 40, No. 6, 2002, pp. 1331-1333.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/ajkd.2002.36924
[93] A. Karras, M. Lafaurie, A. Furco, A. Bourgarit, D. Droz, D. Sereni, C. Legendre, F. Martinez and J.-M. Molina, “Tenofovirrelated Nephrotoxicity in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients: Three Cases of Renal Failure, Fanconi Syndrome, and Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus,” Clinical Infectious Disease, Vol. 36, No. 8, 2003, pp. 1070-1073. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/368314
[94] G. Gaspar, A. Monereo, A. Garcia-Reyne and M. de Guzmán, “Fanconi Syndrome and Acute Renal Failure in a Patient Treated with Tenofovir: A Call for Caution,” AIDS, Vol. 18, No. 2, 2004, pp. 351-352.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00002030-200401230-00035
[95] S. Callens, A. De Roo and R. Colebunders, “Letter to the Editor—Fanconi-Like Syndrome and Rhabdomyolysis in a person with HIV Infection on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Including Tenofovir,” Journal of Infection, Vol. 47, No. 3, 2003, pp. 262-263.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0163-4453(03)00082-3
[96] S. R. Brian and A. P. Mark, “Tenofovir-Associated Nephrotoxicity: Fanconi Syndrome and Renal Failure,” American Journal Medicine, Vol. 117, No. 4, 2004, pp. 282-284. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2004.03.025
[97] C. W. James, M. C. Steinhaus, S. Szabo and R. M. Dressler, “Tenofovir-Related Nephrotoxicity: Case Report and Review of the Literature,” Pharmacotherapy, Vol. 24, No. 3, 2004, pp. 414-418.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1592/phco.24.4.415.33182
[98] S. Nidhi, “Concept of Drug Interaction,” International Research Journal of Pharmacy Vol. 3. No. 7, 2012, pp. 120-122.
[99] S. Marcotte, A. Talbot and B. Trottier, “Acute Renal Failure in Four HIV Infected Patients: Potential Association with Tenofovir and Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs,” Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology, Vol. 19, No. 1, 2008, pp. 75-76.
[100] M. Bickel, P. Khaykin, C. Stephen, K. Schmidt, M. Buettner, K. Amann, T. Lutz, P. Gute, A. Haberl, H. Geiger, H. R. Brodt and O. Jung, “Acute Kidney Injury Caused by Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate and Diclofenac Co-Administration,” HIV Medicine, Vol. 14, No. 10, 2013, pp. 633-638. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hiv.12072
[101] S. Schaller and B. S. Kaplan, “Acute Nonoliguric Renal Failure in Children Associated with Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Agents,” Pediatric Emergency Care, Vol. 14, No. 6, 1998, pp. 416-418.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00006565-199812000-00011
[102] A. A. Edin, A. A. Shaheen, H. M. Elgawad and N. I. Shehata, “Protective Effect of Taurine and Guercetin against Renal Dysfunction Associates with Combine Use of Gentamicin and Diclofenac,” Indian Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Vol. 45, No. 5, 2008, pp. 332-340.
[103] L. Kovacevic, J. Bernstein, R. P. Valentini, A. Imam, N. Gupta and T. K. Mattoo, “Renal Papillary Necrosis Induced by Naproxen,” Pediatric Nephrology, Vol. 18, No. 8, 2003, pp. 826-829.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-003-1167-4
[104] P. E. Kulling, E. A. Backman, A. S. Skagius and E. A. Beckman, “Renal Impairment after Acute Diclofenac, Naproxen, and Sulindac Overdoses,” Journal of Toxicology-Clinical Toxicology., Vol. 33, No. 2, 1995, pp. 173-177.
[105] O. S. Onay, H. S. Er?oban, U. S. Bayrakci, E. Melek, N. Cengiz and E. Baskin, “Acute, Reversible Nonoliguric Renal Failure in Two Children Associated with Analgesic-Antipyretic Drugs,” Pediatric Emergency Care, Vol. 25, No. 4, 2009, pp. 263-266.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PEC.0b013e31819e38d4
[106] S. Andalib, A. M. Naem, A. Garjani, N. Ahmadi Asl and A. Addolahi, “Comparative Study Pertaining to Deleterious Effect of Diclofenac Sodium and Meloxicam on Kidney Tissue in Rats,” Experimental and Clinical Science Journal, Vol. 10, 2011, pp. 149-154.
[107] G. Ayadin, A. G. Mera, E. Cikem and N. Karahan, “Histopathological Changes in Liver and Renal Tissue Induced by Different Doses of Diclofenac Sodium in Rats,” Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Science, Vol. 27, 2003, pp. 1131-1140.
[108] Z. K. EL-Maddawy and I. M. EL-Ashmawy, “Hepato-Renal and Hematological Effect of Diclofenac Sodium in Rats,” Global Journal of Pharmacology, Vol. 7, No. 2, 2013, pp. 123-132.
[109] K. Thangapandian, “Ibuprofen Induced Nephrotoxicity in Adult Albino Rats,” International Journal of Advance Life Science, Vol. 1, 2012, pp. 58-67.
[110] M. O. Abata, I. Lateef and V. O. Taiwo, “Toxic Effect of Non Steroidal Antiinflammatory Agents in Rats,” African Journal of Biomedical Research, Vol. 9, 2006, pp. 219-233.
[111] M. A. Perazella and G. K. Buller, “Can Ibuprofen Cause Acute Renal Failure in a Normal Individual? A Case of Acute Overdose,” American Journal of Kidney Disease, Vol. 18, No. 5, 1991, pp. 600-602.
[112] C. Kenyon, N. Wearne, R. Burton and G. Meintjes, “The Risks of Concurrent Treatment with Tenofovir and Aminoglycosides in Patients with HIV-Associated Tuberculosis,” South African Journal of HIV Medicine, Vol. 12, No. 1, 2011, pp. 43-45.
[113] J. P. Olivera, C. A. Silva, C. D. Barbieri, G. M. Olivieira, D. M. T. Zanetta and E. A. Burdmann, “Prevalence and Risk Factors for Aminoglycoside Nephrotoxicity in Intensive Care Unit,” Antimicrobial Agents Chemotherapy, Vol. 53, No. 7, 2009, pp. 2887-2891.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.01430-08
[114] J. S. Bertino, L. A. Booker, P. A. Franck, P. L. Jenkins, K. R. Franck and A. N. Nafziger, “Incidence of and Significant Risk Factors for Aminoglycoside-Associated Nephrotoxicity in Patients Dosed by Using Individualized Pharmacokinetic Monitoring,” Journal of Infectious Disease, Vol. 167, No. 1, 1993, pp. 173-179.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/167.1.173
[115] D. Beauchamp, G. Laurent, L. Grenier, J. Zanen, J. A. Heuson-Stiennon and M. G. Bergeron, “Attenuated of Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats by Feroxacin,” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotheraphy, Vol. 41, No. 6, 1997, pp. 1237-1245.
[116] O. Bella and A. Chuka, “Dose Dependent Amelioration of Gentamicin Induced Nephrotoxicity in Adult Albino Rats by Vitamin B Complex—A Preliminary Study,” Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, Vol. 8, No. 2, 2009, pp. 111-116.
[117] C. Martinez-Salgado, F. J. Lopez-Hernandez and J. M. Lopez-Novia, “Glomerular Nephrotoxicity of Aminoglycosides,” Toxicity and Applied Pharmacology, Vol. 223, No. 1, 2007, pp. 86-98.
[118] M. P. Mingeot-Leclercg and P. M. Tulkerns, “Aminoglycoside: Nephrotoxicity,” Antimicrobial Agents Chemotherapy, Vol. 43, No. 5, 1999, pp. 1003-1012.
[119] C. Martínez-Salgado, F. J. López-Hernández and J. M. López-Novoa, “Glomerular Nephrotoxicity of Aminoglycosides,” Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Vol. 223, No. 1, 2007, pp. 86-98.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2007.05.004
[120] T. Samadian, A. R. Debpour, S. Amini and P. Nouhnejad, “Inhibition of Gentamicin Induced Nephrotoxicity by Lithium in Rats,” Histology and Histopathology, Vol. 8, No. 1, 1993, pp. 139-147.
[121] M. M. Khalaf, S. S. Ghaleb and M. F. Abbas, “Protective Effect of Carnosine on Amikacin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats,” Mansoura Journal of Forensic Medical and Clinical Toxicology, Vol. 18, No. 1, 2010, pp. 81-89.
[122] S. K. Gupta, J. A. Eustace, J. A. Winston, et al., “Guidelines for the Management of Chronic Kidney Disease in HIV-Infected Patients: Recommendations of the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America,” Clinical Infectious Disease, Vol. 40, No. 11, 2005, pp. 1559-1585. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/430257
[123] HIV/AIDS Treatment Guidelines/AIDSinfo. aidsinfo.nih. gov/guidelines.
[124] E. S. Perloff, S. X. Duan, P. R. Skolnik, et al., “Atazanavir: Effects on P-gp Transport and CYP3A Metabolism in Vitro,” Drug Metababolism and Disposition, Vol. 33, No. 6, 2005, pp. 764-770.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/dmd.104.002931
[125] “The European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products,” Press Office London, 2005.
[126] A. M. Taburet, C. Piketty, C. Chazallon, I. Vincent, L. Gérard, V. Calvez, F. Clavel, J.-P. Aboulker and P.-M. Girard, “Interactions between Atazanavir-Ritonavir and Tenofovir in Heavily Pretreated Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients,” Antimicrobial Agents Chemotherapy, Vol. 48, No. 6, 2004, pp. 2091-2096.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.48.6.2091-2096.2004
[127] M. A. Crowther, W. Callaghan, A. B. Hodsman and I. D. Mackie, “Dideoxyinosine-Associated Nephrotoxicity,” AIDS, Vol. 7, No. 1, 1993, pp. 131-132.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00002030-199301000-00024
[128] G. D’Ythurbide, C. Goujard, F. Mechai, A. Blanc, B. Charpentier and R. Snanoudj, “Fanconi Syndrome and Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus Associated with Didanosine Therapy and Literature Review,” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, Vol. 22, No. 12, 2007, pp. 3656-3659.
[129] S. Hussain, A. Khayat, A. Tolaymat and M. H. Rathore, “Nephrotoxicity in a Child with Perinatal HIV on Tenofovir, Didanosine and Lopinavir/Ritonavir,” Pediatric Nephrology, Vol. 21, No. 7, 2006, pp. 1034-1036.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-006-0109-3
[130] F. Rollot, E. M. Nazal, L. Chauvelot-Moachon, C. Kélaïdi, N. Daniel, M. Saba, S. Abad and P. Blanche, “Tenofovirrelated Fanconi Syndrome with Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus in a Patient with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: The Role of Lopinavir-Ritonavir-Didanosine,” Clinical Infectious Disease, Vol. 37, No. 12, 2003, pp. e174-e176. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/379829
[131] C. Creput, G. Gonzalez-Canali, G. Hill, C. Piketty, M. Kazatchkine and D. Nochy, “Renal Lesions in HIV-1-Positive Patient Treated with Tenofovir,” AIDS, Vol. 17, No. 6, 2003, pp. 935-937.
[132] “Viread (Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate),” Gilead Sciences, Foster City, 2005.
[133] D. J. Back, D. M. Burger, C. W. Flexner and J. G. Gerber, “The Pharmacology of Antiretroviral Nucleoside and Nucleotide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors,” Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, Vol. 39, 2005, pp. S1-S23.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.qai.0000168882.67942.3f
[134] F. Vidal, J. C. Domingo, J. Guallar, M. Saumoy, B. Cordobilla, R. S. de la Rosa, M. Giralt, M. L. álvarez, M. López-Dupla, F. Torres, F. Villarroya, T. Cihlar and P. Domingo, “In Vitro Cytotoxicity and Mitochondrial Toxicity of Tenofovir Alone and in Combination with Other antiretrovirals in Human Renal Proximal Tubule Cells,” Antimicrobial Agents Chemotherapy, Vol. 50, No. 11, 2006, pp. 3824-3832. http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.00437-06
[135] M. R. Nelson, C. Katlama, J. S. Montaner, et al., “The Safety of Tenofov Disoproxil Fumarate for the Treatment of HIV Infection in Adults: The First 4 Years,” AIDS, Vol. 21, No. 10, 2007, pp. 1273-1281.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0b013e3280b07b33
[136] G. Madeddu, P. Bonfanti, G. V. De Socio, S. Carradori, C. Grosso, P. Marconi, G. Penco, E. Rosella, S. Miccolis, S. Melzi, M. S. Mura, S. Landonio, E. Ricci and T. Quirino, “Tenofovir Renal Safety in HIV-Infected Patients: Results from the SCOLTA Project,” Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Vol. 62, No. 1, 2008, pp. 6-11.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2007.04.008
[137] US Renal Data System (USRDS), “USRDS 2001 Annual Data Report,” Bethesda MD, The National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, 2001.
[138] A. I. Choi, R. A. Rodriguez, P. Bacchetti, D. Bertenthal, P. A. Volberding and A. M. O’Hare, “Racial Differences in End-Stage Renal Disease Rates in HIV Infection versus Diabetes,” Journal of American Society of Nephrology, Vol. 18, No. 11, 2007, pp. 2968-2974.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2007040402
[139] G. Lucas, B. Lau, M. Atta, D. Fine, J. Keruly, and R. Moore, “Chronic Kidney Disease Incidence and Progression to End-Stage Renal Disease, in HIV-Infected Individuals: A Tale of Two Races,” Journal of Infectious Disease, Vol. 197, No. 11, 2008, pp. 1548-1557.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/587994
[140] S, Rodríguez-Nóvoa, P. Labarga, V. Soriano, D. Egan, M. Albalater, J. Morello, L. Cuenca, G. González-Pardo, S. Khoo, D. Back and A. Owen, “Predictors of Kidney Tubular Dysfunction in HIV-Infected Patients Treated with Tenofovir: A Pharmacogenetic Study,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, Vol. 48, No. 11, 2009, pp. e108-e116.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/598507
[141] H. Izzedine, J. Hulot, E. Villard, C. Goyenvalle, S. Dominguez, J. Ghosn, M. A. Valantin, P. Lechat and G. Deray, “Association between ABCC2 Gene Haplotypes and Tenofovir-Induced Proximal Tubulopathy,” The Journal of Infectious Diseases, Vol. 194, No. 11, 2006, pp. 1481-1491. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/508546
[142] S. P. Pushpakom, N. J. Liptrott, S. Rodríguez-Nóvoa, P. Labarga, V. Soriano, M. Albalater, E. Hopper-Borge, S. Bonora, G. Di Perri, D. J. Back, S. Khoo, M. Pirmohamed and A. Owen, “Genetic Variants of ABCC10, a Novel Tenofovir Transporter, Are Associated With Kidney Tubular Dysfunction,” The Journal of Infectious Diseases, Vol. 204, No. 1, 2011, pp. 145-153.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jir215
[143] T. Nishijima, H. Komatsu, K. Higasa, M. Takano, K. Tsuchiya, T. Hayashida, S. Oka and H. Gatanaga, “Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in ABCC2 Associate With Tenofovir-Induced Kidney Tubular Dysfunction in Japanese Patients with HIV-1 Infection: A Pharmacogenetic Study, Clinical Infectious Diseases, Vol. 55, No. 11, 2012, pp. 1558-1567. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/cis772
[144] G. Birkus, M. J. Hitchcock and T. Cihlar, “Assessment of Mitochondrial Toxicity in Human Cells Treated with Tenofovir: Comparison with Other Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors,” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Vol. 46, No. 3, 2002, pp. 716-723.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.46.3.716-723.2002
[145] T. Cihlar, A. S. Ray, G. Laflamme, J. E. Vela, L. Tong, M. D. Fuller, A. Roy and G. R. Rhodes, “Molecular Assessment of the Potential for Renal Drug Interactions between Tenofovir and HIV Protease Inhibitors,” Antiviral Therapy, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2007, pp. 267-272.
[146] H. C. Cote, A. B. Magil, M. Harris, B. J. Scarth, I. Gadawski, N. Wang, E. Yu, B. Yip, N. Zalunardo, R. Werb, R. Hogg, P. R. Harrigan and J. S. Montaner, “Exploring Mitochondrial Nephrotoxicity as a Potential Mechanism of Kidney Dysfunction among HIV-Infected Patients on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy,” Antiviral Therapy, Vol. 11, No. 1, 2006, pp. 79-86.
[147] A. B. Liborio, L. Andrade, L. B. Pereira, T. C. Sanches, M. H. Shimizu and A. C. Seguro, “Rosiglitazone Reverses Tenofovir-Induced Nephrotoxicity,” Kidney International, Vol. 74, 2008, pp. 910-918.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ki.2008.252
[148] J. J. Kohler, S. H. Hosseini, A. Hoying-Brandt, E. Green, D. M. Johnson, R. Russ, D. Tran, C. M. Raper, R. Santoianni and W. Lewis, “Tenofovir Renal Toxicity Targets Mitochondria of Renal Proximal Tubules,” Laboratory Investigation, Vol. 89, 2009, pp. 513-519.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/labinvest.2009.14
[149] D. Lebrecht, A. C. Venhoff, J. Kirschner, T. Wiech, N. Venhoff and U. A. Walker, “Mitochondrial Tubulopathy in Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate-Treated Rats,” Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, Vol. 51, No. 3, 2009, pp. 258-263.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181a666eb
[150] M. L. Circu and T. Y. Aw, “Reactive Oxygen Species, Cellular Redox Systems, and Apoptosis,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Vol. 48, No. 6, 2010, pp. 749-762.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2009.12.022
[151] M. C. Dalakas, I. Illa, G. H. Pezeshkpour, J. P. Laukaitis, B. Cohen and J. L. Griffin, “Mitochondrial Myopathy Caused by Long-Term Zidovudine Therapy,” New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 322, No. 16, 1990, pp. 1098-1105.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199004193221602
[152] I. Dalle-Donne, G. Aldini, M. Carini, R. Colombo, R. Rossi and A. Milzani, “Protein Carbonylation, Cellular Dysfunction, and Disease Progression,” Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Vol. 10, No. 2, 2006, pp. 389-406.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1582-4934.2006.tb00407.x
[153] M. Marí, A. Morales, A. Colell, C. García-Ruiz and J. C. Fernández-Checa, “Mitochondrial Glutathione, a Key Survival Antioxidant,” Antioxidants and Redox Signaling, Vol. 11, No. 11, 2009, pp. 2685-2700.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/ars.2009.2695
[154] N. Güngör, R. L. Godschalk, D. M. Pachen, F. J. Van Schooten and A. M. Knaapen, “Activated Neutrophils Inhibit Nucleotide Excision Repair in Human Pulmonary Epithelial Cells: Role of Myeloperoxidase,” Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, Vol. 21, No. 10, 2007, pp. 2359-2367.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.07-8163com
[155] H. Ramamoorthy, P. Abraham and B. Isaac, “Oxidative Stress, Decreased Activities of Anti-Oxidant Enzymes, and Neutrophil Infiltration Contribute to Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Induced Renal Damage in Rats,” International Research of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Vol. 1, No. 10, 2011, pp. 259-270.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.