Utilizing Soybean Milk to Culture Soybean Pathogens


Liquid and semi-solid culture media are used to maintain and proliferate bacteria, fungi, and Oomycetes for research in microbiology and plant pathology. In this study, a comparison was made between soybean milk medium, also referred to as soymilk, and media traditionally used for culturing soybean pathogens to determine if soymilk medium was an effective medium for growth of Colletotrichum truncatum, Fusarium virguliforme, Macrophomina phaseolina, Passalora sojina, Phomopsis longicolla, Phytophthora sojae, Pythium irregulare, Rhizoctonia solani, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Based on radial mycelial colony growth rates, C. sojina grew significantly (P < 0.05) faster on soymilk dextrose agar (SDA) than on V-8 agar, and C. truncatum and F. virguliforme grew significantly (P < 0.05) faster on SDA than potato dextrose agar (PDA). Significantly (P < 0.001) greater masses of sclerotia were produced by S. sclerotiorum grown on SDA as compared to PDA. Soymilk used with agar or used alone as a broth may be an option for replacing more expensive processed culture media.

Share and Cite:

Y. Xiang, T. Herman and G. Hartman, "Utilizing Soybean Milk to Culture Soybean Pathogens," Advances in Microbiology, Vol. 4 No. 2, 2014, pp. 126-132. doi: 10.4236/aim.2014.42017.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] R. Koch, “Zur Untersuchung von Pathogenen Organismen,” Mitthdungen uus dem Kaiserlichen Gesundbeitsamte, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1881, pp. 1-48.
[2] T. D. Brock, “The Etiology of Anthrax, Based on the Life History of Bacillus anthracis,” In: T. D. Brock, Ed., Milestones in Microbiology 1556 to 1940, ASM Press, Washington DC, 1999, pp. 89-95.
[3] T. D. Brock, “Methods for the Study of Pathogenic Organisms,” In: T. D. Brock, Ed., Milestones in Microbiology 1556 to 1940, ASM Press, Washington DC, 1999, pp. 101-108.
[4] O. D. Dhingra and J. B. Sinclair, “Basic Plant Pathology Methods,” CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1985.
[5] O. D. Dhingra and J. B. Sinclair, “Culture of Pathogens,” Basic Plant Pathology Methods, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1985, pp. 11-47.
[6] G. L. Hartman, J. B. Sinclair and J. C. Rupe, “Compendium of Soybean Diseases,” 4th Edition, American Phytopathological Press, St. Paul, Minn., 1999.
[7] T. Aoki, K. O’Donnell, Y. Homma and A. R. Lattanzi, “Sudden-Death Syndrome of Soybean Is Caused by Two Morphologically and Phylogenetically Distinct Species within the Fusarium solani Species Complex-F. virguliforme in North America and F. tucumani,” Mycologia, Vol. 95, No. 4, 2001, pp. 660-684.
[8] C. Booth, “Methods of Isolation, Culture and Stimulation of Sporulation,” In: Kew, Ed., The Genus Fusarium, Easter Press, Surrey, 1971, pp. 21-23.
[9] S. Li, G. Hartman and L. Gray, “Chlamydospore Formation, Production, and Nuclear Status in Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines Soybean Sudden Death Syndrome-Causing Isolates,” Mycologia, Vol. 90, No. 3, 1998, pp. 414-421.
[10] J. Ma, C. B. Hill and G. L. Hartman, “Production of Macrophomina phaseolina Conidia by Multiple Soybean Isolates in Culture,” Plant Disease, Vol. 94, No. 9, 2011, pp. 1088-1092.
[11] A. F. Schmitthenner, “Phytophthora Rot,” In: G. L. Hartman, J. B. Sinclair and J. C. Rupe, Eds., Compendium of Soybean Diseases, American Phytopathological Press, St. Paul, Minn., 1999, pp. 46-47.
[12] D. Cleland, K. Jastrzembski, E. Stamenova, J. Benson, C. Catranis, D. Emerson and B. Beck, “Growth Characteristics of Microorganisms on Commercially Available Animal-Free Alternatives to Tryptic Soy Medium,” Journal of Microbiological Methods, Vol. 69, No. 2, 2007, pp. 345-352.
[13] N. Okafor, “Industrial Media and the Nutrition of Industrial Organisms,” In: N. H. Enfield, Ed., Modern Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, Science Publishers, 2007, pp. 54-76.
[14] Anonymous, “Product Descriptions,” In: D. Laboratories, Ed., Difco Manual of Dehydrated Culture Media and Reagents for Microbiological, 10th Edition, Difco Laboratories, Detroit, 1984, pp. 55-1145.
[15] W. Q. Sun and A. C. Leopold, “Glassy State and Seed Storage Stability: A Viability Equation Analysis,” Annals of Botany, Vol. 74, No. 6, 1994, pp. 601-604.
[16] N. Jinapong, M. Suphantharika and P. Jamnong, “Production of Instant Soymilk Powders by Ultrafiltration, Spray Drying and Fluidized Bed Agglomeration,” Journal of Food Engineering, Vol. 84, No. 2, 2008, pp. 194-205.
[17] M. A. Jackson, R. J. Bothast and D. A. Schisler, “Influence of Nutrition during Conidiation of Colletotrichum truncatumon Conidial Germination and Efficacy in Inciting Disease in Sesbania exaltata,” Phytopathology, Vol. 81, No. 6, 1991, pp. 587-590.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.