Patterns of Caffeinated Energy Drinks Consumption among Adolescents and Adults in Hail, Saudi Arabia

DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.52021   PDF   HTML     4,860 Downloads   7,872 Views   Citations

Abstract

Caffeinated energy drinks have become more popular in the last decades, especially amongst adolescents and young adults in different parts of the globe. The study aims to investigate the frequency of energy-drink consumption and associated factors in an arbitrary group of adults and adolescents living in Hail/Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted and included which randomly selected 1062 participants (867 males and 195 females) from universities, colleges, middle-to-higher schools and social settings. Data collection was conducted using a self-administered standard tested questionnaire. The current study revealed about 46% had drunk energy drinks, while about 54% did not ever drink energy drinks. Out of the energy drinks consumers, 37% started drinking during the primary school, 64% consumed energy drinks on a daily basis, and 44% consumed two or more cans per day. Reasons behind not taking energy drinks were the belief that they are unhealthy drinks (about two-thirds of non-drinkers), and lack of curiosity for energy drinks (18%). Other reasons such as unaccepted taste, thought to be obesogenic, and the possibility of getting addicted were also reported. From all participants, only 23% and 4% knew about the presence of caffeine and taurine, respectively, in energy drinks. Unreliable resources were the major sources of knowledge about energy drinks and their health effects. Awareness of community about the ingredients and potential hazards of energy drinks should be raised and encouraged by designing and implementing educational programs.

Share and Cite:

M. Faris, "Patterns of Caffeinated Energy Drinks Consumption among Adolescents and Adults in Hail, Saudi Arabia," Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 5 No. 2, 2014, pp. 158-168. doi: 10.4236/fns.2014.52021.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

References

[1] A. Peacock, F. H. Martin and A. Carr, “Energy Drink Ingredients. Contribution of Caffeine and Taurine to Performance Outcomes,” Appetite, Vol. 64, 2013, pp. 1-4.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2012.12.021
[2] H. J. Smit and P. J. Rogers, “Effects of ‘Energy’ Drinks on Mood and Mental Performance: Critical Methodology,” Food Quality and Preference, Vol. 13, No. 5, 2002, pp. 317-326.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0950-3293(02)00044-7
[3] C. J. Reissig, E. C. Strain and R. R. Griffiths, “Caffeinated Energy Drinks. A Growing Problem,” Drug and Alcohol Dependence, Vol. 99, No. 1, 2009, pp. 1-10.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2008.08.001
[4] K. M. Babu, R. J. Church and W. Lewander, “Energy Drinks: The New Eye-Opener for Adolescents,” Clinical Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9, No. 1, 2008, pp. 35-42.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cpem.2007.12.002
[5] K. E. Miller, “Energy Drinks, Race, and Problem Behaviors among College Students,” Journal of Adolescent Health, Vol. 43, No. 5, 2008, pp. 490-497.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2008.03.003
[6] C. Buxton and J. E. Hagan, “A Survey of Energy Drinks Consumption Practices among Student-Athletes in Ghana: Lessons for Developing Health Education Intervention Programs,” Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, Vol. 9, No. 1, 2012, p. 9.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2008.03.003
[7] K. E. Miller, “Energy Drinks, Jock Identity, Masculine Norms, and Risk Taking,” Journal of American College Health, Vol. 56, No. 5, 2008, pp. 481-489.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3200/JACH.56.5.481-490
[8] H. Bunting, A. Baggett and J. Grigor, “Adolescent and Young Adult Perceptions of Caffeinated Energy Drinks: A Qualitative Approach,” Appetite, Vol. 65, 2013, pp. 132-138.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2013.02.011
[9] M. A. Heckman, K. Sherry and E. G. de Mejia, “Energy Drinks: An Assessment of Their Market Size, Consumer Demographics, Ingredient Profile, Functionality, and Regulations in the United States,” Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, Vol. 9, No. 3, 2010, pp. 303-317.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-4337.2010.00111.x
[10] M. J. Glade, “Caffeine—Not Just a Stimulant,” Nutrition, Vol. 26, No. 10, 2010, pp. 932-938.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2010.08.004
[11] A. J. Berger and K. Alford, “Cardiac Arrest in a Young Man Following Excess Consumption of Caffeinated ‘Energy Drinks’,” Medical Journal of Australia, Vol. 190, No. 1, 2009, pp. 41-43.
[12] N. Gunja and J. A. Brown, “Energy Drinks: Health Risks and Toxicity,” Medical Journal of Australia, Vol. 196, No. 1, 2012, pp. 46-49.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5694/mja11.10838
[13] N. Pennington, M. Johnson, E. Delaney and M. B. Blankenship, “Energy Drinks: A New Health Hazard for Adolescents,” The Journal of School Nursing, Vol. 26, No. 5, 2010, pp. 352-359.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1059840510374188
[14] S. M. Seifert, J. L. Schaechter, E. R. Hershorin and S. E. Lipshultz, “Health Effects of Energy Drinks on Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults,” Pediatrics, Vol. 127, No. 3, 2011, pp. 511-528.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2009-3592
[15] S. J. P. Iyadurai and S. S. Chung, “New-Onset Seizures in Adults: Possible Association with Consumption of Popular Energy Drinks,” Epilepsy & Behavior, Vol. 10, No. 3, 2007, pp. 504-508.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2007.01.009
[16] A. Usman and A. Jawaid, “Hypertension in a Young Boy: An Energy Drink Effect,” BMC Research Notes, Vol. 5, No. 1, 2012, p. 591.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1756-0500-5-591
[17] “Global Energy Drinks Report 2012,” 2013.
http://www.researchandmarkets.com/reports/2105825/global_energy_drinks report_2012
[18] R. Aluqmany, U. Mansoor, R. Saad, R. Abdullah and A. Ahamd, “Consumption of Energy Drinks among Female Secondary School Students, Almadinah Almunawwarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia,” Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences, Vol. 8, No. 1, 2013, pp. 60-65.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtumed.2013.01.009
[19] F. Al Buhairan, H. Tamim, W. Tamimi, S. Al Shahri, I. Al Alwan, M. E. Magzoub, N. E. Ahmed and M. Al Dubayee, “Dietary Patterns and Weight Status of Saudi Arabian Adolescents,” Journal of Adolescent Health, Vol. 50, No. 2, 2012, pp. S59-S60.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2011.10.160
[20] A. A. Alsunni and A. Badar, “Energy Drinks Consumption Pattern, Perceived Benefits and Associated Adverse Effects amongst Students of University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia,” Journal of Ayub Medical College Abbottabad, Vol. 23, No. 3, 2011, pp. 3-9.
[21] S. Attila and B. Cakir, “Energy-Drink Consumption in College Students and Associated Factors,” Nutrition, Vol. 27, No. 3, 2011, pp. 316-322.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2010.02.008
[22] J. A. O’Dea, “Consumption of Nutritional Supplements among Adolescents: Usage and Perceived Benefits,” Health Education Research, Vol. 18, No. 1, 2003, pp. 98-107.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/her/18.1.98
[23] A. M. Bender, R. L. Donnerstein, R. A. Samson, D. Zhu and S. J. Goldberg, “Hemodynamic Effects of Acute Caffeine Ingestion in Young Adults,” American Journal of Cardiology, Vol. 79, No. 5, 1997, pp. 696-699.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9149(96)00848-X
[24] A. B. Scholey and D. O. Kennedy, “Cognitive and Physiological Effects of an ‘Energy Drink’: An Evaluation of the Whole Drink and of Glucose, Caffeine and Herbal Flavouring Fractions,” Psychopharmacology, Vol. 176, No. 3-4, 2004, pp. 320-330.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-004-1935-2
[25] G. E. Giles, C. R. Mahoney, T. T. Brunyé, A. L. Gardony, H. A. Taylor and R. B. Kanarek, “Differential Cognitive Effects of Energy Drink Ingredients: Caffeine, Taurine, and Glucose,” Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, Vol. 102, No. 4, 2012, pp. 569-577.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pbb.2012.07.004
[26] M. Rath, “Energy Drinks: What Is All the Hype? The Dangers of Energy Drink Consumption,” Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, Vol. 24, No. 2, 2012, pp. 70-76.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-7599.2011.00689.x
[27] W. S. Waring, J. Goudsmit, J. Marwick, D. J. Webb and S. R. J. Maxwell, “Acute Caffeine Intake Influences Central More Than Peripheral Blood Pressure in Young Adults,” American Journal of Hypertension, Vol. 16, No. 11, 2003, pp. 919-924.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0895-7061(03)01014-8
[28] A. A. Alsunni, “Are Energy Drinks Physiological?” Pakistan Journal of Physiology, Vol. 7, No. 1, 2011, pp. 4449.
[29] C. Banda, A. Marietta, G. Syler and W. Hoover, “College Students’ Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors Related to Energy Drinks,” Journal of the American Dietetic Association, Vol. 110, No. 9, 2010, p. A108.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jada.2010.06.407
[30] B. M. Malinauskas, V. G. Aeby, R. F. Overton, T. C. Aeby and K. Barber-Heidal, “A Survey of Energy Drink Consumption Patterns among College Students,” Nutrition Journal, Vol. 6, No. 1, 2007, pp. 35-41.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2891-6-35
[31] H. M. Al Hazzaa, N. A. Abahussain, H. I. Al-Sobaye, D. M. Qahwaji and A. O. Musaiger, “Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviors and Dietary Habits among Saudi Adolescents Relative to Age, Gender and Region,” International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, Vol. 8, No. 1, 2011, p. 140.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-8-140
[32] H. M. Al Hazzaa, N. A. Abahussain, H. I. Al-Sobaye, D. M. Qahwaji and A. O. Musaiger, “Lifestyle Factors Associated with Overweight and Obesity among Saudi Adolescents,” BMC Public Health, Vol. 12, No. 1, 2012, p. 354. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-12-354
[33] M. I. Hassan and N. A. Al-Abbad, “Glutamate and Caffeine Intake of Some Snacks and Drinks in Saudi Arabia,” Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2011, pp. 162-167.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/fns.2011.22023
[34] S. Gibson, “Sugar-Sweetened Soft Drinks and Obesity: A Systematic Review of the Evidence from Observational Studies and Interventions,” Nutrition Research Reviews, Vol. 21, No. 2, 2008, pp. 134-147.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0954422408110976
[35] J. Salmon, K. J. Campbell and D. A. Crawford, “Television Viewing Habits Associated with Obesity Risk Factors: A Survey of Melbourne Schoolchildren,” Medical Journal of Australia, Vol. 184, No. 2, 2006, pp. 64-67.
[36] E. Rush, S. Schulz, V. Obolonkin, D. Simmons and L. Plank, “Are Energy Drinks Contributing to the Obesity Epidemic?” Asian Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 15, No. 2, 2006, pp. 242-244.
[37] L. Steinke, D. E. Lanfear, V. Dhanapal and J. S. Kalus, “Effect of ‘Energy Drink’ Consumption on Hemodynamic and Electrocardiographic Parameters in Healthy Young Adults,” The Annals of Pharmacotherapy, Vol. 43, No. 4, 2009, pp. 596-602.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1345/aph.1L614
[38] U. Wiklund, M. Karlsson, M. Ostrom and T. Messner, “Influence of Energy Drinks and Alcohol on Post-Exercise Heart Rate Recovery and Heart Rate Variability,” Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging, Vol. 29, No. 1, 2009, pp. 74-80.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-097X.2008.00837.x

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.