Protection of Low Voltage CIGRE Distribution Network

DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2013.49056   PDF   HTML     5,274 Downloads   7,669 Views   Citations


High quality electricity services are the prime objectives in the modern power systems around the world. One of the main players to achieve this is the protection of the system which needs to be fast, reliable and cost effective. The study about the protection of the Low Voltage (LV) CIGRE distribution grid and networks like this has been proposed in this paper. The main objective of this paper is to develop protection against short circuit faults which might appear anywhere in the network. The protection of the power networks that comprises of renewable energy generation units is complicated because of the bidirectional flow of the current and is a challenge for the protection engineers. The selection of the protection devices in this paper is made to protect the network against faults in grid connected and island mode of operation. Ultra-fast fuses are proposed in order to protect the inverters used for Photovoltaic (PV) and battery applications. The disconnection of the PV solar panels when in island mode is made by proposing switch disconnecting devices. ABB is currently using these kinds of disconnection devices for the purpose of protecting solar panels against over voltages in the case of islanding. The over speed protection of the existing Wind Turbine Generator (WTG) in the CIGRE network in case of grid loss is also proposed in this paper.

Share and Cite:

G. Bhutto, B. Bak-Jensen, C. Bak and J. Pillai, "Protection of Low Voltage CIGRE Distribution Network," Smart Grid and Renewable Energy, Vol. 4 No. 9, 2013, pp. 489-500. doi: 10.4236/sgre.2013.49056.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] J. R. Lucas, “Power System Analysis: Faults,” EE 423, 2005.
[2] Benchmark Systems for Network Integration of Renewable Energy Resources, Version 7, CIGRE Task Force C6.04.02, 2011.
[3] G. M. Bhutto, B. Bak-Jensen and P. Mahat, “Modeling of the CIGRE Low Voltage Test Distribution Network and the Development of Appropriate Controllers,” Transactions on Smart Grid and Clean Energy, Vol. 2, 2013, pp. 184-191.
[4] Merlin Gerin, Square D and Telemecanique, “Selection of Fuses for the Protection of Transformers,” Schneider Electric, 2004.
[5] Schneider Electric Industries SAS, “Safe and Reliable Photovoltaic Energy Generation,” EDCED112005EN, Rueil-Malmaison Cedex-France, 2012.
[6] A. Wright and P. G. Newbery, “Electric Fuses,” 3rd Edition, Institution of Electrical Engineers (IET), 2004, pp. 2-10.
[7] L. Hewitson, M. Brown, B. Ramesh and S. Mackay, “Practical Power Systems Protection,” Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2004.
[8] IEEE, “Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems,” IEEE 1547.2-2008.
[9] Electric Power Distribution for Industrial Plants, IEEE Std 141-1993 Red Book.
[10] B. Kroposki, “Optimization of Distributed and Renewable Energy Penetration in Electric Power Distribution Systems,” Submitted Thesis to CSM for Partial Degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Engineering Systems), Golden, Colorado, 2008
[11] Wind Turbine Safety, Danish Wind Industry Association.
[12] H. Gitano-Briggs, “Small Wind Turbine Power Controllers, Wind Power,” 2010.
[13] M. Kanabar and S. Khaparde, “Rotor Speed Stability Analysis of a Constant Speed Wind Turbine Generator,” 2011.
[14] K. Rajambal, B. Umamaheswari and C. Chellamuthu, “Electrical Braking of Large Wind Turbines,” Renewable Energy, Vol. 30, No. 15, 2005, pp. 2235-2245.
[15] N. McMahon, “On Electrodynamic Braking for Small Wind Turbines,” Centre for Renewable Energy at Dundalk Institute of Technology, 2013.
[16] P. E. Joe Mooney and J. Peer, “Application Guidelines for Ground Fault Protection,” Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc., Pullman.
[17] J. Tengdin, R. Westfall and K. Stephan, “High Impedance Fault Detection Technology,” Report of PSRC Working Group D15.
[18] C. Du, “The Control of VSC-HVDC and Its Use for Large Industrial Power System,” Licentiate Thesis, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, 2003.
[19] N. Mohan, T. M. Underland and W. P. Robbins, Eds., “Power Electronics-Converter, Design and Application,” 2nd Edition, John Wiley, New York, 1995.
[20] R. Pollanen, “Converter-Flux-Based Current Control of Voltage Source PWM Rectifier Analysis and Implementation,” Ph.D. Dissertation, Acta University, Lappeenrantaensis, 2003.
[21] Technical Information about IGBT-Module, FZ1800R17 HP4_B29, Material No. 32559, 2010.
[22] M. Mc Granaghan, D. R. Mueller and M. Samotyj, “Voltage Sag in Industrial Systems,” IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol. 29, No. 2, 1993, pp. 397-403.
[23] G. M. Bhutto, B. Bak-Jensen, P. Mahat and C. Cecati, “Mitigation of Unbalanced Voltage Sags and Voltage Unbalance in CIGRE Low Voltage Distribution Network,” Energy and Power Engineering, Vol. 5, 2013, pp. 551-559.
[24] A. von Jouanne and B. Banerjee, “Assessment of Voltage Unbalance,” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 16, No. 4, 2001, pp. 782-790.
[25] F. C. Pereira, J. C. de Oliveira, O. C. N. Souto, A. L. A. Vilaca and P. F. Ribeiro, “An Analysis of Costs Related To The Loss of Power Quality,” 8th International Conference on Harmonics and Power Quality, Athens, 14-16 October 1998, pp. 777-812.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.