Environmental Impacts of Solid Waste Landfills on Natural Ecosystems of Southern Caspian Sea Coastlines


The problem of solid waste landfills on Caspian Sea coastlines is one of the current concerns of the Iranian environmental authorities. Physical and environmental constraints as well as shortcomings in present municipal solid waste management are the main factors for environmental pollution and natural resources destruction in this geographical region. In order to reduce the above problems, this study has been carried out on the basis of a comparative assessment of the existing condition of landfill sites in natural ecosystems. In this study, 48 cities of the region have been investigated. All of them are located in Gilan and Mazandaran provinces. Total daily waste production in the study area is about 1209 tons that are dumped in open spaces and/or in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Surveying of 53 physical, adaptability and constraint parameters as well as hygiene and environmental parameters in the landfills, based on Monavari-94 Method indicate that the main problem in all of them is a high groundwater table. In 42% of landfills, the groundwater level is between from 0.5 to 2 meters. This phenomenon may cause severe risks due to the infiltration of leachate into potable groundwater. Indeed, the results of the study show that 87.5% of the landfills are located in areas with unacceptable conditions. In spite of geographical and environmental problems and constraints and as a final alternative in this respect, the need for sanitary and technical solid waste management is the main need of the study areas.

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S. Monavari, S. Tajziehchi and R. Rahimi, "Environmental Impacts of Solid Waste Landfills on Natural Ecosystems of Southern Caspian Sea Coastlines," Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 4 No. 12, 2013, pp. 1453-1460. doi: 10.4236/jep.2013.412167.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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