Forest History Snapshot: Forest Industry Woodlands Operations Locations Prior to Mergers and Acquistions (Miscellanea)


Forestry industry was a major owner of timberland in the United States over most of the twentieth century. This timberland was seen as a cost-effective means to supply their lumber and pulp mills. They were an important owner, with some of the most productive and intensively-managed timberlands in the country. Beginning in the 1980s, other investors realized the value of timberland assets and actively pursued acquisition of the forest products companies and their timberland assets. Mergers and acquisitions were common within the industry as a means to discourage takeovers. These timberlands were traditionally managed by woodlands operations located near the mills. These operations defined classic timber towns, with names like Crossett, Georgetown, Bogalusa, and Millinocket becoming synonymous with the mill and the woodlands. Woodlands operations are nearly extinct as few mills still own timberlands; what might remain is a small wood procurement organization at the same location. These woodlands operations were an important part of forest history and their locations provide much insight into the historical patterns of industrial forest management. Major forest industry woodlands operations are identified by geography and size as a means to record a fading historical artifact of forest history.

Share and Cite:

J. Straka, T. (2013). Forest History Snapshot: Forest Industry Woodlands Operations Locations Prior to Mergers and Acquistions. Advances in Historical Studies, 2, 194-201. doi: 10.4236/ahs.2013.24024.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Bettinger, P., Boston, K., Siry, J. P., & Grebner, D. L. (2009). Forest management and planning. Burlington, MA: Academic Press.
[2] Binkley, C. S. (2007). The rise and fall of the timberland investment management organizations: Ownership changes in US forestland. In 2007 Pinchot Distinguished Lecture. Washington, DC: Pinchot Institute for Conservation.
[3] Binkley, C. S., Raper, C. F., & Washburn, C. L. (1996). Institutional ownership of US timberland: History, rationale, and implication for forest management. Journal of Forestry, 94, 21-28.
[4] Block, N. E., & Sample, V. A. (2001). Industrial timberland divestitures and investment: Opportunities and challenges in forest conservation. Washington, DC: Pinchot Institute for Conservation.
[5] Chapman, H. H. (1931). Forest management. Albany, NY: J. B. Lyon Company, Publishers.
[6] Clark, S. A., & Howell, P. (2007). From Diamond International to Plum Creek: The era of large landscape conservation in the Northern Forest. Maine Policy Review, 16.2, 56-65.
[7] Clutter, M., Mendell, B., Newman, D., Wear, D., & Greis, J. (2005). Strategic factors driving timberland ownership changes in the U.S. South. Athens, GA: Center for Forest Business, University of Georgia; USDA Forest Service; Southern Group of State Foresters.
[8] Diamond, J., Chappelle, D. E., & Edwards, J. D. (1999). Mergers and acquisitions in the forest products industry. Forest Products Journal, 49, 24-36.
[9] Davis, K. P. (1966). Forest management: Regulation and valuation (2nd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Book Company.
[10] Davis, L. S., Johnson, K. N., Bettinger, P., & Howard, T. E. (2001). Forest management: To sustain ecological, economic, and social value (4th ed.). Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press, Inc.
[11] Fiacco, J. B. (2010). A brief TIMO backgrounder. Summerville, SC: Timberland Strategies, LLC.
[12] Fu, C. (2012). Timberland investments: A primer. Brookline, MA: Timberland Investment Resources.
[13] Gunnoe, A., & Gellert, P. K. (2011). Financialization, shareholder value, and the transformation of timberland ownership in the US. Critical Sociology, 7, 265-284.
[14] Harris, T. (2007). Industry, TIMOs, REITs, the changing face of forestry: The new private forest landowners. Forest Landowner, 66, 3-5.
[15] Harris, T., Baldwin, S., & Siry, J. (2011). United States timberland markets: Transactions, values and market research. Athens, GA: Timber Mart-South.
[16] Hickman, C. (2007). TIMOs and REITs. Washington, DC: USDA Forest Service, Research and Development.
[17] Irland, L. C. (2005). U.S. forest ownership: historical and global perspective. Maine Policy Review, 14.1, 16-22.
[18] Irland, L. C., & Howard, T. E. (1989). Innovative forms of timberland ownership: What are the driving forces? The Consultant, 34, 32-37.
[19] Lehman Brothers Collection (2013). Great Northern Nekoosa Corporation. Boston, MA: Harvard University, Harvard Baker Library Special Collections.
[20] Leuschner, W. A. (1984). Introduction to forest resource management. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
[21] McCann, P. K. (1994). Timber! The fall of Maine’s paper giant… A chronicle of Great Northern paper Company in the 1980s and 1990s. Ellsworth, ME: The Ellsworth American.
[22] Meyer, H. A., Recknagel, A. B., Stevenson, D. D., & Bartoo, R. A. (1961). Forest management (2nd ed.). New York, NY: The Ronald Press Company.
[23] O’Laughlin, J., & Ellefson, P. V. (1982). Strategies for corporate timberland ownership and management. Journal of Forestry, 80, 784-791.
[24] Recknagel, A. B. (1913). The theory and practice of working plans (forest organization). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
[25] Sampson, N., DeCoster, L., & Remuzzi, J. (2000). Changes in forest industry timberland ownership: 1979-2000. Alexandria, VA: The Sampson Group, Inc.
[26] Smith, W. B., Miles, P. D., Perry, C. H., & Pugh, S. A. (2009). Forest resources of the United States, 2007 (General Technical Report WO-78). Washington, DC: United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service.
[27] Steeves, B. H. (2009). Special Collections: Guide to the Great Northern Paper Company records, history. Orono, ME: University of Maine, Raymond H. Fogler Library.
[28] Stein, P. R. (2011). Trends in forestland: Ownership and conservation. Forest History Today, Spring/Fall, 2011, 83-86.
[29] Straka, T. J. (2009). Does your client own timberland? Financial Advisor, 10, 95-96.
[30] Timber Harvesting (1980-1994). Wood and woodland directory. Montgomery, AL: Hatton-Brown Publishers, Inc.
[31] Yin, R., Caulfield, J. P., Aronow, M. E., & Harris T. G., Jr. (1998). Industrial timberland: Current situation, holding rationale, and future development. Forest Products Journal, 48, 43-48.
[32] Zinkhan, F. C., Sizemore, W. R., Mason, G. H., & Ebner, T. J. (1992). Timberland investments: A portfolio perspective. Portland, OR: Timber Press.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.