Synthesis of Poly(APP-co-EGDMA) Particles Using Monomers Derived from Cashew Nut Shell Liquid for the Removal of Cr(III) from Aqueous Solutions


This work was aimed at synthesizing Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL) based polymer particles for adsorption of Cr(III) ions from aqueous solutions. Natural CNSL was used as a starting material in synthesizing amino pentadecylphenols (APP). This was achieved through isolating anacardic acid from the CNSL via calcium anacardate procedure, followed by hydrogenation of the alkenyl side chains, and subsequently decarboxylating the product to form 3-pentadecylphenol, which was then nitrated and reduced to a mixture of APP. APP were co-polymerized with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) to form poly(APP-co-EGDMA) particles. The chemical structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by Fourier Transform IR and 1H-NMR. The co-polymer particles were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to establish their morphological properties. The prepared co-polymer particles were found to have-NH loading of 46 mmol/g and a maximum adsorption capacity for Cr(III) ions of 16 mg per g of dry polymer particles. The spent polymer particles were recoverable and reusable.

Share and Cite:

Wilson, J. , Yoeza Naimani Philip, J. and Epiphan Gabriel Mdoe, J. (2014) Synthesis of Poly(APP-co-EGDMA) Particles Using Monomers Derived from Cashew Nut Shell Liquid for the Removal of Cr(III) from Aqueous Solutions. Open Journal of Organic Polymer Materials, 4, 29-36. doi: 10.4236/ojopm.2014.41005.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] P. C. Nagajyoti, K. D. Lee and T. V. M. Sreekanth, “Heavy Metals, Occurrence and Toxicity for Plants: A Review,” Environmental Chemistry Letters, Vol. 8, No. 3, 2012, pp. 199-216.
[2] N. A. N. Nik Malek and A. Mohd Yusof, “Removal of Cr(III) from Aqueous Solutions Using Zeolite Clay Prepared from Rice Husks Ash,” The Malaysian Journal of Analytical Sciences, Vol. 11, No. 1, 2007, pp. 76-83.
[3] K. Lock and C. R. Janssen, “Ecotoxicity of Chromium (III) to Eisenia Fetida, Enchytraeus Albidus, and Folsomia Candida,” Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, Vol. 51, No. 3, 2002, pp. 203-205.
[4] T. S. Anirudhan and R. G. Radhakrishnan, “Chromium (III) Removal from Water and Wastewater Using Carboxylate-Functionalised Cation Exchange Prepared from a Lignocellulosic Residue,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Vol. 316, No. 2, 2007, pp. 268-276.
[5] S. Tangjuank, N. Insuk, V. Udeye and J. Tontrakoon, “Chromium(III) Sorption from Aqueous Solutions Using Activated Carbon Prepared from Cashew Nut Shells,” International Journal of Physical Science, Vol. 4, No. 8, 2009, pp. 412-417.
[6] M. Sen and M. Ghosh Dastidar, “Chromium Removal Using Various Biosorbents,” Iran Journal of Environmental and Health Science Engineering, Vol. 7, No. 3, 2010, pp. 182-190.
[7] M. M. Nasef, H. Saidi, Z. Ujang and K. Z. M. Dahlan, “Removal of Metal Ions from Aqueous Solutions Using Crosslinked Polyethylene-GTMFJ-Polystyrene Sulfonic Acid Adsorbent Prepared by Radiation Grafting,” Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society, Vol. 55, No. 4, 2010, pp. 421- 427.
[8] H. Eisazadeh, “Removal of Chromium from Waste Water Using Polyaniline,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 104, No. 3, 2007, pp. 1964-1967.
[9] R. Ansari, “Application of Polyaniline and Its Composites for Adsorption/Recovery of Chromium (VI) from Aqueous Solutions,” Acta Chimica Slovenica, Vol. 53, 2006, pp. 88-94.
[10] H. Eisazadeh, “Removal of Arsenic in Water Using Polypyrrole and Its Composites,” Applied Science Journal, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2008, pp. 10-13.
[11] S. Y. Prabawati, Jumina, S. J. Santosa and Mustofa, “Synthesis of Polypropylcalix [6] Arene from P-t-butylphenol as Adsorbent for Cr(III) Metal Ion,” Indonesian Journal of Chemistry, Vol. 11, No. 1, 2011, pp. 37-42.
[12] B. C. Pan, W. M. Zhang, B. J. Pan, H. Qiu, Q. R. Zhang, Q. X. Zhang and S. R. Zheng, “Efficient Removal of Aromatic Sulfonates from Wastewater by a Recyclable Polymer: 2-Naphthalene Sulfonate as a Representative Pollutant,” Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 42, 2008, pp. 7411-7416.
[13] A. Denizli, N. Sanli, B. Garipcan, S. Patir and G. Alsancak, “Methacryloylamidoglutamic Acid Incorporated Porous Poly-(methylmethacrylate) Beads for Heavy-Metal Removal,” Industrial Engineering Chemistry Research, Vol. 43, 2004, pp. 6095-6101.
[14] A. Nastasovic, S. Jovanovic, D. Dordevic, A. Onjia, D. Jakovljevic and T. Novakovic, “Metal Sorption on Macroporous Poly(GMA-co-EGDMA) Modified with Ethylene Diamine,” Reactive and Functional Polymers, Vol. 58, No. 2, 2004, pp. 139-147.
[15] R. Kunin, “The Use of Macroreticular Polymeric Adsorbents for the Treatment of Waste Effluents,” Pure and Applied Chemistry, Vol. 46, No. 2-4, 1976, pp. 205-211.
[16] R. Paramashivappa, P. Zolfigol, P. Kumar, P. J. Vithayathil and A. S. Rao, “Novel Method for Isolation of Major Phenolic Constituents from Cashew (Anacardium Occidentale L.) Nut Shell Liquid,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 49, No. 5, 2001, pp. 2548-2551.
[17] A. Esmaeili, A. Mesdaghi nia and R. Vazirinejad, “Chromium (III) Removal and Recovery from Tannery Wastewater by Precipitation Process,” American Journal of Applied Sciences, Vol. 2, No. 10, 2005, pp. 1471-1473.
[18] J. Aguado, J. M. Arsuaga, A. Arencibia, M. Lindo and V. Gascón, “Aqueous Heavy Metals Removal by Adsorption on Amine-Functionalized Mesoporous Silica,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 163, No. 1, 2009, pp. 213-221.
[19] L. L. Mkayula, M. M. Y. Makame and T. H. Mtechi, “Preparations of Spherical Polymeric Particles from Tanzania Cashew Nut Shell Liquid by Suspension Polymerization,” Tanzania Journal of Science, Vol. 30, No. 2, 2004, pp. 1-10.
[20] S. H. J. Desi, S. M. Dwi, O. Keisuke and K. Hidetaka “Adsorption of Pb(II), Cd(II), and Cr(III) from Aqueous Solution by Poly-5-allyl-calix[4]arene Tetra Carboxylic Acid,” Indian Journal of Chemistry, Vol. 11, No. 2, 2011, pp. 191-195.
[21] A. M. A. Nada, M. Y. Alkady and H. M. Fekry, “Synthesis and Characterization of Grafted Cellulose for Use in Water and Metal Ions Sorption,” BioResources, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2007, pp. 46-59.
[22] G. R. Bernado, R. M. Rene and A. D. Ma. Catalina, “Chromium (III) Uptake by Agro-Waste Biosorbents: Chemical Characterization, Sorption-Desorption Studies,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 170, No. 2-3, 2009, pp. 845-854.
[23] M. Mahdavi, M. B. Ahmadi, M. J. Haron and M. Z. Ad. Ramadhani, “Adsorption of Cr(III) from Aqueous Solution by Polycrylamide-Crafted Rubber Wood Fibre. Kinetics, Equilibrium and Thermodynamic Studies,” BioResource, Vol. 6, No. 1, 2011, pp. 22-33.
[24] E. Erdem, N. Karapinar and R. Donat, “The Removal of Heavy Metal Cations by Natural Zeolites,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Vol. 280, No. 2, 2004. pp 309-314.
[25] M. R. Gandhi, N. Viswanathan and S. Meenakshi, “Synthesis and Characterization of a Few Amino-Functionalized Copolymeric Resins and Their Environmental Applications,” Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, Vol. 51, No. 16, 2012, pp. 5677-5684.

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.