Reactive oxygen species—Control and management using amphiphilic biosynthetic hydrogels for cardiac applications


The reactive oxygen species (ROS) originated from endogenous and exogenous sources play a dominant role in the initiation and propagation of several diseases. It is therefore an urgent need to explore substances capable of encountering the ROS and resist the damage caused by ROS. The present paper deals with various aspects of generation and implications of ROS in the management of myocardial infarction. The use of biosynthetic amphiphilic biodegradable hydrogels in the control and management of ROS in myocardial infarction was studied using a biosynthetic hydrogel (PA-PEGDA) comprising poly(propylene fumarate)-co-alginate copolymer cross-linked with calcium and polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA). The effect of ROS on the cell growth was studied using H2O2 as model ROS molecule. The present hydrogel resists the penetration of ROS in the cell which was evident from the live/dead assay, increased intra cellular GSH levels when compared with the H2O2 treated positive and curcumin treated negative control cells. The Comet assay reveals genomic integrity of the cells exposed to the present hydrogel. The hydrogel is a promising injectable material for the management of myocardial infarction and ischemia. 

Share and Cite:

Thankam Finosh, G. and Jayabalan, M. (2013) Reactive oxygen species—Control and management using amphiphilic biosynthetic hydrogels for cardiac applications. Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology, 4, 1134-1146. doi: 10.4236/abb.2013.412150.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Gerschman, R., Gilbert, D.L., Nye, S.W., Dwyer, P. and Fenn, W.O. (1954) Oxygen poisoning and x-irradiation— A mechanism in common. Science, 119, 623-626.
[2] Harman, D. (1956) Aging—A theory based on free-radical and radiation-chemistry. Journals of Gerontology, 11, 298-300.
[3] Gilbert, D.L. (2000) Fifty years of radical ideas. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 899, 1-14.
[4] Evans, P. and Halliwll, B. (2001) Micronutrients: Oxidant/antioxidant status. British Journal of Nutrition, 85, 67-74.
[5] Halliwell, B. (1994) Free radicals, antioxidants, and human disease: Curiosity, cause, or consequence? Lancet, 344, 721-724.
[6] Valko, M., Rhodes, C.J., Moncol, J., Izakovic, M. and Mazur, M. (2006) Free radicals, metals and antioxidants in oxidative stress-induced cancer. Chemico-Biological Interactions, 160, 1-40.
[7] Droge, W. (2002) Free radicals in the physiological control of cell function. Physiological Reviews, 82, 47-95.
[8] Young, I. and Woodside, J. (2001) Antioxidants in health and disease. Journal of Clinical Patholology, 54, 176-186.
[9] Willcox, J.K., Ash, S.L. and Catignani, G.L. (2004) Antioxidants and prevention of chronic disease. Review. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 44, 275-295.
[10] Muller, F.L., Liu, Y. and Van Remmen, H. (2004) Complex III releases superoxide to both sides of the inner mitochondrial membrane. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 279, 49064-49073.
[11] Leonard, S.S., Harris, G.K. and Shi, X. (2004) Metalinduced oxidative stress and signal transduction. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 37, 1921-1942.
[12] Liochev, S.I. and Fridovich, I. (2002) The Haber-Weiss cycle—70 years later: An alternative view. Redox Report, 7, 55-57.
[13] Aikens, J. and Dix, T.A. (1991) Perhydroxyl radical (HOO·) initiated lipid-peroxidation—The role of fattyacid hydroperoxides. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 266, 15091-15098.
[14] Valko, M., Izakovic, M., Mazur, M., Rhodes, C.J. and Telser, J. (2004) Role of oxygen radicals in DNA damage and cancer incidence. Molecular and Cellular Biology, 266, 37-56.
[15] Fang, Y.Z. (1991) Effect of ionizing radiation on superoxide dismutase in vitro and in vivo. In: Fang, Y.Z., Ed., Advances in Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Atomic Energy Press, Beijing, 1.
[16] Fang, Y.Z. (2002) Free radicals and nutrition. In: Fang, Y.Z. and Zheng, R.L., Eds., Theory and Application of Free Radical Biology, Scientific Press, Beijing, 647.
[17] DeCoursey, T.E. and Liget, I.E. (2005) Regulation and termination of NADPH oxidase activity. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, 62, 2173-2193.
[18] Schrec, R. and Baeuerle, P.A. (1991) A role for oxygen radicals as second messengers. Trends in Cell Biology, 1, 39-42.
[19] Ignarro, L.J., Cirino, G., Casini, A. and Napoli, C. (1999) Nitric oxide as a signaling molecule in the vascular system: an overview. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology, 34, 879-886.
[20] Etsuo, N., Yasukazu, Y., Yoshiro, S. and Noriko, N. (2005) Lipid peroxidation: Mechanisms, inhibition, and biological effects. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 338, 668-676.
[21] Fedtke, N., Boucheron, J.A., Walker, V.E. and Swenberg, J.A. (1990) Vinyl chloride-induced DNA adducts. 2. Formation and persistence of 7-2’-oxoethylguanine and n2,3-ethenoguanine in rat-tissue DNA. Carcinogenesis, 11, 1287-1292.
[22] Fink, S.P., Reddy, G.R. and Marnett, L.J. (1997) Mutagenicity in Escherichia coli of the major DNA adduct derived from the endogenous mutagen malondialdehyde. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 94, 8652-8657.
[23] Beckman, K.B. and Ames, B.N. (1997) Oxidative decay of DNA. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 272, 19633-19636.
[24] Thomas, B.K., Anastassiya, B.G., Polycarpos, P. and Alexandros, G.G. (2011) Role of oxidative stress and DNA damage in human carcinogenesis. Mutation Research, 711, 193-201.
[25] Konsta, A.A., Visvardis, E.E., Haveles, K.S., Georgakilas, A.G. and Sideris, E.G. (2003) Detecting radiationinduced DNA damage: From changes in dielectric properties to programmed cell death. Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 305, 295-302.
[26] Stadtman, E.R. (2004) Role of oxidant species in aging. Current Medicinal Chemistry, 11, 1105-1112.
[27] Dalle-Donne, I., Rossi, R., Colombo, R., Giustarini, D. and Milzani, A. (2006) Biomarkers of oxidative damage in human disease. Clinical Chemistry, 52, 601-623.
[28] Ling, J. and Söll, D. (2010) Severe oxidative stress induces protein mistranslation through impairment of an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase editing site. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107, 4028-4033.
[29] Garrison, W.M. (1987) Reaction mechanisms in the radiolysis of peptides, polypeptides, and proteins. Chemical Reviews, 87, 381-398.
[30] Bonnefont-Rousselot, D. (2002) Glucose and reactive oxygen species. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care, 5, 561-568.
[31] Kohe, R. (1999) Skin antioxidants: Their role in aging and in oxidative stress—New approaches for their evaluation. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, 53, 181-192.
[32] Hassan, H.M. (1989) Microbial superoxide dismutases. Advances in Genetics, 26, 65-97.
[33] Steinman, H.M. (1986) Bacteriocuprein superoxide dismutase of Photobacterium leiognathi. Isolation and sequence of the gene and evidence for a precursor form. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 262, 1882-1887.
[34] Aebi, H.E. (1987) Enzymes 1: Oxidoreductases, transferases. In: Bergmeyer, H., Ed., Methods of Enzymatic Analysis, Verlag Chemie, Weinheim, 273-282.
[35] Tappel, A.L. (1978) Glutathione peroxidase and hydroperoxides. Methods in Enzymology, 52, 506-513.
[36] Imai, H., Narashim, K., Arai, M., Sakamoto, H., Chiba, N. and Nakagawa, Y. (1998) Suppression of leukotriene formation in RBL-2H3 cells that overexpressed phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 273, 1990-1997.
[37] De Haan, J.D., Bladier, C., Griffiths, P., Michael, K., Ross, D.O., Nam, S.C., Bronson, R.T., Mary, J., Steven, W., Shao, S.Z., Philip, M.B., Paul, J.H. and Ismail, K. (1998) Mice with a homozygous null mutation for the most abundant glutathione peroxidase, Gpx1, show increased susceptibility to the oxidative stress-inducing agents paraquat and hydrogen peroxide. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 273, 22528-22536.
[38] Kim, S.J., Jung, H.J., Hyun, D.H., Park, E.H., Kim, Y.M. and Lim, C.J. (2010) Glutathione reductase plays an antiapoptotic role against oxidative stress in human hepatoma cells. Biochimie, 92, 927-932.
[39] Clark, S.F. (2002) The biochemistry of antioxidants revisited. Nutrition in Clinical Practice, 17, 5-17.
[40] Wu, J.M. and Hsieh, T.C. (2011) Resveratrol: A cardioprotective substance. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1215, 16-21.
[41] Lu, S.C. (2001) Regulation of glutathione synthesis. Current Topics in Cellular Regulation, 36, 95-116.
[42] Meister, A. (1991) Glutathione deficiency produced by inhibition of its synthesis, and its reversal; applications in research and therapy. Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 51, 155-194.
[43] Griffith, O.W. (1999) Biologic and pharmacologic regulation of mammalian glutathione synthesis. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 27, 922-935.
[44] Fujii, T., Endo, T., Fujii, J. and Taniguchi, N. (2002) Differential expression of glutathione reductase and cytosolic glutathione peroxidase, GPX1, in developing rat lungs and kidneys. Free Radical Research, 36, 1041-1049.
[45] Liu, R.H. (2003) Health benefits of fruits and vegetables are from additive and synergistic combination of phytochemicals. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 78, 5175-5205.
[46] Schulz, T.J., Zarse, K., Voigt, A., Urban, N., Birringer, M. and Ristow, M. (2007) Glucose restriction extends caenorhabditis elegans life span by inducing mitochondrial respiration and increasing oxidative stress. Cell Metabolism, 6, 280-293.
[47] Cherubini, A., Vigna, G.B., Zuliani, G., Ruggiero, C., Senin, U. and Fellin, R. (2005) Role of antioxidants in atherosclerosis: epidemiological and clinical update. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 11, 2017-2032.
[48] Stanner, S.A., Hughes, J., Kelly, C.N.M. and Buttriss, J. (2004) A review of the epidemiological evidence for the ‘antioxidant hypothesis’. Public Health Nutrition, 7, 407-422.
[49] Sun, J., Chu, Y-F., Wu, X. and Liu, R.H. (2002) Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of fruits. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50, 7449-7454.
[50] Ronald, L.P. and Guohua, C. (2000) Antioxidant phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables: Diet and health implications. Hortscience, 35, 588-593.
[51] Katsunari, A.K., Ito, I. and Higashio, J.T. (1999) Evaluation of antioxidative activity of vegetable extracts in linoleic acid emulsion and phospholipid bilayers. Journal of Science of Food and Agriculture, 79, 2010-2016.
[52] Flohé, R.B., Frank, J., Salonearn, J.T., Neuzil, J., Zingg, J. and Azzi, A. (2002) The European perspective on vitamin E current knowledge and future research. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 76, 703-716.
[53] Duduku, K., Rosalam, S. and Awang, B. (2007) Phytochemical antioxidants for health and medicine—A move towards nature. Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Reviews, 1, 97-104.
[54] Vega-Lopez, S., Devaraj, S. and Jialal, I. (2004) Oxidative stress and antioxidant supplementation in the management of diabetic cardiovascular disease. Journal of Investigative Medicine, 52, 24-32.
[55] White, H.D., Norris, R.M., Brown, M.A., Brandt, P.W., Whitlock, R.M. and Wild, C.J. (1987) Left ventricular end-systolic volume as the major determinant of survival after recovery from myocardial infarction. Circulation, 76, 44-51.
[56] Jugdutt, B.I. and Amy, W.M. (1986) Healing after myocardial infarction in the dog: Changes in infarct hydroxyproline and topography. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 7, 91-102.
[57] Jack, M.C., Jagannadha, C.K., Eduardo, G., Ramareddy, V.G. and Karl, T.W. (1995) The rat myocardium after infarction. Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology, 27, 1281-1292.
[58] Waypa, G.B., Marks, J.D., Mack, M.M., Boriboun, C., Mungai, P.T. and Schumacker, P.T. (2002) Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species trigger calcium increases during hypoxia in pulmonary arterial myocytes. Circulation Research, 91, 719-726.
[59] Nakamura, K., Fushimi, K., Kouchi, H., Mihara, K., Miyazaki, M., Ohe, T. and Namba, M. (1998) Inhibitory effects of antioxidants on neonatal rat cardiac myocyte hypertrophy induced by tumor necrosis factor-α and angiotensin II. Circulation, 98, 794-799.
[60] Rohde, L.E., Ducharme, A., Arroyo, L.H., Aikawa, M., Sukhova, G.H., Lopez-Anaya, A., McClure, K.F., Mitchell, P.G., Libby, P. and Lee, R.T. (1999) Matrix metalloproteinase inhibition attenuates early left ventricular enlargement after experimental myocardial infarction in mice. Circulation, 99, 3063-3070.
[61] Rothstein, E.C., Byron, K.L., Reed, R.E., Fliegel, L. and Lucchesi, P.A. (2002) H2O2-Induced Ca2+ overload in NRVM involves ERK1/2 MAP kinases: Role for an NHE1-dependent pathway. American Journal of Physiology— Heartand CirculatoryPhysiology, 283, 598-605.
[62] Mukherjee, S.B., Das, M., Sudhandiran, G. and Shaha, C. (2002) Increase in cytosolic Ca2+ levels through the activation of non-selective cation channels induced by oxidative stress causes mitochondrial depolarization leading to apoptosis-like death in Leishmania donovani promastigotes. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 277, 24717-24727.
[63] Duilio, C., Ambrosio, G., Kuppusamy, P., DiPaula, A., Becker, L.C. and Zweier, J.L. (2001) Neutrophils are primary source of O2 radicals during reperfusion after prolonged myocardial ischemia. American Journal of Physiology—Heartand Circulatory Physiology, 280, 2649-2657.
[64] Sanjuan-Pla, A., Cervera, A.M., Apostolova, N., Garcia-Bou, R., Victor, V.M., Murphy, M.P. and McCreath, K.J. (2005) A targeted antioxidant reveals the importance of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in the hypoxic signaling of HIF-1α. FEBS Letters, 79, 2669-2674.
[65] Philipp, S., Critz, S.D., Cui, L., Solodushko, V., Cohen, M.V. and Downey, J.M. (2006) Localizing extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in pharmacological preconditioning’s trigger pathway. Basic Research in Cardiology, 101, 159-167.
[66] Alcendor, R.R., Gao, S., Zhai, P., Zablocki, D., Holle, E., Yu, X.Z., Tian, B., Wagner, T., Vatner, S.F. and Sadoshima, J. (2007) Sirt1 regulates aging and resistance to oxidative stress in the heart. Circulation Research, 100, 1512-1521.
[67] Afanas’ev, I. (2010) Reactive oxygen species and age-related genes p66shc, Sirtuin, Fox03 and Klotho in senecence. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 3, 77-85.
[68] Sundaresan, N.R., Gupta, M., Kim, G., Rajamohan, S.B., Isbatan, A. and Gupta, M.P. (2009) Sirt3 blocks the cardiac hypertrophic response by augmenting Foxo3a-dependent antioxidant defense mechanisms in mice. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 119, 2758-2771.
[69] Finosh, G.T. and Jayabalan, M. (2012) Regenerative therapy and tissue engineering for the treatment of end-stage cardiac failure—New developments and challenges. Biomatter, 2, 1-14.
[70] Wu, G., Fang, Y., Yang, S., Lupton, J.R. and Turner, N.D. (2004) Glutathione metabolism and its implications for health. Journal of Nutrition, 134, 489-492.
[71] Asiri, Y.A. (2010) Probucol attenuates cyclophosphamide-induced oxidative apoptosis, p53 and Bax signal expression in rat cardiac tissues. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 3, 308-316.
[72] Tripathi, P., Chandra, M. and Misra, M.K. (2009) Oral administration of l-arginine in patients with angina or following myocardial infarction may be protective by increasing plasma superoxide dismutase and total thiols with reduction in serum cholesterol and xanthine oxidase. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 2, 231-237.
[73] Chen, J., Shearer, G.C., Chen, Q., et al. (2011) Omega-3 fatty acids prevent pressure overload-induced cardiac fibrosis through activation of cyclic GMP/protein kinase g signaling in cardiac fibroblasts. Circulation, 123, 584-593.
[74] Das, A., Salloum, F.N., Xi, L., Rao, Y.J. and Kukreja, R.C. (2009) ERK phosphorylation mediates sildenafil-induced myocardial protection against ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice. American Journal of Physiology, 296, 1236-1243.
[75] Boyle, A. (2009) Current status of cardiac transplantation and mechanical circulatory support. Current Heart Failure Reports, 6, 28-33.
[76] Kofidis, T., Akhyari, P., Boublik, J., Theodorou, P., Martin, U., Ruhparwar, A., Fischer, S., Eschenhagen, T., Kubis, H.P., Kraft, T., Leyh, R. and Haverich, A. (2002) In Vitro engineering of heart muscleartificial myocardial tissue. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, 124, 63-69.
[77] van Luyn, M.J., Tio, R.A., van Seijen, X.J., Plantinga, J.A., de Leij, L.F., DeJongste, M.J. and van Wachem, P.B. (2002) Cardiac tissue engineering: Characteristics of in unison contracting twoand three-dimensional neonatal rat ventricle cell (co)-cultures. Biomaterials, 23, 4793-4801.
[78] Wolfram-Hubertus, Z., Ivan, M., Thomas, E. (2004) Engineered heart tissue for regeneration of diseased hearts. Biomaterials, 25, 1639-1647.
[79] Liau, B., Zhang, D.H. and Bursac, N. (2012) Functional cardiac tissue engineering. Regenerative Medicine, 7, 187-206.
[80] Brandon, V.S., Shahana, S.K., Omar, Z.F., Ali, K., Nicholas, A.P. (2009) Hydrogels in regenerative medicine. Advanced Materials, 21, 3307-3329.
[81] Li, Z.Q. and G, J.J. (2011) Hydrogels for cardiac tissue engineering. Polymers, 3, 740-761.
[82] Kim, P.D., Peyton, S.R., Van, A.J. and Putnam, A.J. (2009) The influence of ascorbic acid, TGF-beta1, and cell-mediated remodeling on the bulk mechanical properties of 3-D PEG-fibrinogen constructs. Biomaterials, 30, 3854-3864.
[83] Zhang, G., Nakamura, Y., Wang, X., Hu, Q., Suggs, L.J. and Zhang, J. (2007) Controlled release of stromal cellderived factor-1 alpha in Situ increases c-kit+ cell homing to the infarcted heart. Tissue Engineering, 13, 2063-2071.
[84] Miller, J.S., Shen, C.J., Legant, W.R., Baranski, J.D., Blakely, B.L. and Chen, C.S. (2010) Bioactive hydrogels made from step-growth derived PEG-peptide macromers. Biomaterials, 31, 3736-3743.
[85] Poon, Y.F., Cao, Y., Zhu, Y., Judeh, Z.M.A. and Chan-Park, M.B. (2009) Addition of beta-malic acidcontaining poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate to form biodegradeable and biocompatible hydrogels. Biomacromolecules, 10, 2043-2052.
[86] Lee, W.F. and Chen, Y.J. (2001) Studies on Preparation and Swelling Properties of the N-isopropylacrylamide/chitosan Semi-IPN and IPN Hydrogels. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 82, 2487-2496.
[87] Pan, J., Liao, H., Leygraf, C., Thierry, D. and Li, J. (1998) Variation of oxide films on titanium induced by osteoblast-like cell culture and the influence of an H2O2 pretreatment. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, 40, 244-256.<244::AID-JBM9>3.0.CO;2-L
[88] Lum, H. and Roebuck, K.A. (2001) Oxidant stress and endothelial cell dysfunction. American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology, 280, 719-741.
[89] Selvam, S., Kundu, K., Templeman, K.L., Murthy, N. and Garcia, A.J. (2011) Minimally Invasive, longitudinal monitoring of biomaterial-associated inflammation by fluorescence imaging. Biomaterials, 32, 7785-7792.
[90] Cheng, Y.-H., Yang, S.-H. and Lina, F.-H., (2011) Thermosensitive chitosan/gelatin/glycerol phosphate hydrogel as a controlled release system of ferulic acid for nucleus pulposus regeneration. Biomaterials, 32, 6953-6961.
[91] Kyle, J.L., Kimberly, B.B. and Melissa, J.M. (2010) Impact of degradable macromer content in a poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogel on neural cell metabolic activity, redox state, proliferation, and differentiation. Tissue Engineering Part A, 16, 1857-1866.
[92] Qi, H.M., Zhang, Q.B., Zhao, T.T., Hu, R.G., Zhang, K. and Li, Z.E. (2006) In Vitro antioxidant activity of acetylated and benzoylated derivatives of polysaccharide extracted from Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta). Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 16, 2441-2445.
[93] Alves, A., Sousa, R.A. and Reis, R.L. (2013) Processing of degradable ulvan 3D porous structures for biomedical applications. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, 101, 998-1006.
[94] Xue, C., Yu, G., Hirata, T., Terao, J. and Lin, H. (1998) Antioxidative activities of several marine polysaccharides evaluated in a phosphatidylcholine-liposomal suspension and organic solvents. Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry, 62, 206-209.
[95] Chien, P.J., Sheu, F., Huang, W.T. and Su, M.S. (2007) Effect of molecular weight of chitosans on their antioxidative activities in apple juice. Food Chemistry, 102, 1192-1198.
[96] Mitha, M.K. and Jayabalan, M. (2009) Studies on biodegradable and crosslinkable poly(castor oil fumarate)/poly (propylene fumarate) composite adhesive as a potential injectable biomaterial. Journal of MaterialsScience: Materials in Medicine, 20, 203-211.
[97] Finosh, G.T., Jayabalan M., Sankar, V. and Gopal, R.K. (2013) Growth and survival of cells in biosynthetic poly vinylalcohol-alginate IPN hydrogels for cardiac applications. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 107, 137-145.
[98] Xin, Y., Fong, Y., Wolf, G., Wolf, D. and C, W., (2001) Protective effect of XY99-5038 on hydrogen peroxide induced cell death in cultured retinal neurons. Life Sciences, 69, 289-299.
[99] Kurose, I., Higuchi, H., Miura, S., Saito, H., Watanabe, N., Hokari, R., Hirokawa, M., Takaishi, M., Zeki, S., Nakamura, T., Ebinuma, H., Kato, S. and Ishii, H. (1997) Oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis of hepatocytes exposed to acute ethanol intoxication. Hepatology, 25, 368-378.
[100] Benhusein, G.M., Mutch, E., Aburawi, S. and Williams, F.M. (2010) Genotoxic effect induced by hydrogen peroxide in human hepatoma cells using comet assay. Libyan Journal of Medicine, 5, 4637-4643.
[101] Barzegar, A. and Moosavi-Movahedi, A.A. (2011) Intracellular ROS protection efficiency and free radical-scavenging activity of curcumin. PLoS ONE, 6, 26012-26019.
[102] Biswas, S.K., McClure, D., Jimenez, L.A., Megson, I.L. and Rahman, I. (2005) Curcumin induces glutathione biosynthesis and inhibits NF-kappaB activation and interleukin-8 release in alveolar epithelial cells: Mechanism of free radical scavenging activity. Antioxidants and Redox Signaling, 7, 32-41.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.