Collective Action in Common Pool Resource Management, Including Heterogeneity of Opportunities and Exit Options


The mechanism through which exit options and outside opportunities affect cooperation outcomes has not been well studied in the resource management literature, since a deep analysis of the concepts of exit options and outside opportunitiesis missing. This article analyzes these concepts across the common pool resource management literature, investigates the factors that underlie opting out decisions, and reviews potential ways to operationalize these concepts for empirical analysis. It also explores how the relationship of cooperation and exit options may be influenced by broad economic processes, such as economic integration.

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P. Useche, "Collective Action in Common Pool Resource Management, Including Heterogeneity of Opportunities and Exit Options," Natural Resources, Vol. 4 No. 8, 2013, pp. 483-489. doi: 10.4236/nr.2013.48059.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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