Stress-Induced Flowering in Pharbitis—A Review


Many plant species are induced to flower by stress. Stress-induced flowering has been studied mostly in the short-day plant pharbitis (also called Japanese morning glory; Ipomoea nil, formerly Pharbitis nil). In this article, physiological characteristics, the regulation by salicylic acid (SA) and the expression of flowering-related genes in stress-induced flowering in pharbitis are reviewed. Pharbitis flowered under long-days in response to poor nutrition or low temperature. The pharbitis plants induced to flower by stress reached anthesis, fruited and produced fertile seeds. The progeny of the stressed plants developed normally. Grafting experiments indicated that a transmissible flowering stimulus is involved in poor nutrition stress-induced flowering. Aminooxyacetic acid (AOA), a phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) inhibitor, inhibited the stress-induced flowering, and this inhibition was overcome by SA. Stress induced PAL activity and SA biosynthesis. PnFT2, a pharbitis ortholog of the flowering gene FLOWERING LOCUS T of Arabidopsis thaliana, was expressed when the plants were induced to flower by stress. The overexpression of PnFT2 induced flowering, and PnFT2RNAi inhibited it. AOA inhibited PnFT2 expression induced by stress, and SA eliminated this inhibitory effect. SA enhanced PnFT2 expression under poor nutrition but not under non-stressful conditions. Therefore, stress may induce the production of SA and other unknown factor(s) that may work in combination to induce PnFT2 expression and flowering.

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K. Wada, M. Yamada and K. Takeno, "Stress-Induced Flowering in Pharbitis—A Review," American Journal of Plant Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 12C, 2013, pp. 74-79. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2013.412A3009.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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