The Social Ecology of Cervical Cancer: The Challenges to Pap Smear Screening


Cervical cancer is a preventable disease. The risk factors for the development of cervical cancer include both biologic factors and social factors. In the United States, the leading risk factor for the development of cervical cancer is not having a Pap smear for five years prior to the diagnosis of cancer. In low and middle income countries, cervical cancer incidence and mortality are directly related to the lack of both screening programs and cancer treatment facilities. This paper examines the social ecology of cervical cancer. The literature is reviewed on social and cultural barriers to access to health care and its effect of cervical cancer rates and outcomes.

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A. Goodman, "The Social Ecology of Cervical Cancer: The Challenges to Pap Smear Screening," International Journal of Clinical Medicine, Vol. 4 No. 12A, 2013, pp. 16-20. doi: 10.4236/ijcm.2013.412A1004.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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