A Uniaxial Loading Device for Studying Mechanoresponses of Single Plant Cell


A system which consists of a loading chamber unit, displacement sensor, data collector and processor, and a feedback control, was established for applying mechanical forces to single plant cells. The method works by compressing an agar cell-suspension block between parallel surfaces through using a force-feedback control circuit coupled to a microchip, delivering the pre-defined. The actual controlled stimulus is achieved whilst measuring the force being imposed on the cell, and its deformation. TheArabidopsisprotoplasts were utilized to test the system. It provides an experimental approach to investigate the mechanoresponses of plant cellsin vitroconditions.

Share and Cite:

Zhu, L. , Fu, X. , Yan, J. and Liu, J. (2013) A Uniaxial Loading Device for Studying Mechanoresponses of Single Plant Cell. Engineering, 5, 416-419. doi: 10.4236/eng.2013.510B085.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] M. Jaffe and S. Forbes, “Thigmomorphogenesis: The Effect of Mechanical Perturbation on Plants,” Plant Growth Regulation, Vol. 12, No. 3, 1993, pp. 313-324. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00027213
[2] A. Geitmann and J. K. E. Ortega, “Mechanics and Modeling of Plant Cell Growth,” Trends in Plant Science, Vol. 14, No. 9, 2009, pp. 467-478. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tplants.2009.07.006
[3] M. A. Wozniak and C. S. Chen, “Mechanotransduction in Development: A Growing Role for Contractility,” Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, Vol. 10, No. 1, 2009, pp. 34-43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrm2592
[4] J. Rajagopalan and M. T. A. Saif, “MEMS Sensors and Microsystems for Cell Mechanobiology,” Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, Vol. 21, No. 5, 2011. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0960-1317/21/5/054002
[5] V. Chickarmane, A. H. K. Roeder, P. T. Tarr, A. Cunha, C. Tobin and E. M. Meyerowitz, “Computational Morphodynamics: A Modeling Framework to Understand Plant Growth,” Annual Review of Plant Biology, Vol. 61, 2010, pp. 65-87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-arplant-042809-112213
[6] K. J. Van Vliet, G. Bao and S. Suresh, “The Biomechanics Toolbox: Experimental Approaches for Living Cells and Biomolecules,” Acta Materialia, Vol. 51, No. 19, 2003, pp. 5881-5905. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actamat.2003.09.001
[7] T. M. Lynch and P. M. Lintilhac, “Mechanical Signals in Plant Development: A New Method for Single Cell Studies,” Developmental Biology, Vol. 181, No. 2, 1997, pp. 246-256. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/dbio.1996.8462
[8] J. Zhou, B. C. Wang, Y. Li, Y. C. Wang and L. Q. Zhu, “Responses of Chrysanthemum Cells to Mechanical Stimulation Require Intact Microtubules and Plasma Membrane¨Ccell Wall Adhesion,” Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, Vol. 26, No. 1, 2007, pp. 55-68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00344-006-0029-2
[9] P. M. Lintilhac and T. B. Vesecky, “Stress-Induced Alignment of Division Plane in Plant Tissues Grown in Vitro,” Nature, Vol. 307, 1984, pp. 363-364. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/307363a0
[10] Y. F. Luo, “Sunplus 16 Bit Microcontroller Application Foundation,” Beihang University Press, 2003.
[11] S. D. Yoo, Y. H. Cho and J. Sheen, “Arabidopsis Mesophyll Protoplasts: A Versatile Cell System for Transient Gene Expression Analysis,” Nature Protocols, Vol. 2, No. 7, 2007, pp. 1565-1572. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nprot.2007.199
[12] O. Hamant, M. G. Heisler, H. Jönsson, P. Krupinski, M. Uyttewaal, et al., “Developmental Patterning by Mechanical Signals in Arabidopsis,” Science, Vol. 322, No. 5908, 2008, p. 1650. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1165594
[13] S. Pien, J. Wyrzykowska, S. McQueen-Mason, C. Smart and A. Fleming, “Local Expression of Expansin Induces the Entire Process of Leaf Development and Modifies Leaf Shape,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 98, No. 20, 2001, p. 11812. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.191380498

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.