High Fluoride, Modest Fluorosis: Investigation in Drinking Water Supply in Halaba (SNNPR, Ethiopia)
Frank van Steenbergen, Redda Tekle Haimanot, Aschalew Sidelil
DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2011.32014   PDF   HTML     5,629 Downloads   11,331 Views   Citations


In Halaba district in Southern Ethiopia fluoride levels from boreholes are high (2.6 to 7.0 mg/l), yet the incidence of fluorosis is modest. Drinking water users living in the vicinity of four drinking water systems that have been in operation for more than 35 years were surveyed. Out of 625 persons 5 percent had severe dental fluorosis and 42 percent had mild forms—which is considerably less than results of other areas with comparable fluoride levels. The incidence was highest in the older age groups. Possible explanations were explored. A likely reason may be the continued large dependence on rain water harvesting ponds for human consumption alongside the use of water from the public borehole systems, but more investigations would be required to confirm this proposition.

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F. van Steenbergen, R. Tekle Haimanot and A. Sidelil, "High Fluoride, Modest Fluorosis: Investigation in Drinking Water Supply in Halaba (SNNPR, Ethiopia)," Journal of Water Resource and Protection, Vol. 3 No. 2, 2011, pp. 120-126. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2011.32014.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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