Interpersonal Dependency Inventory: Its Construct Validity and Prediction of Dysphoric Mood and Life Functioning via Negative Life Events


Previous Dependency Inventory (JIDI) as well demonstrates how the interpersonal attitudes assessed by the JIDI generate interpersonal negative life events (NLEs) and therefore results in dysphoric moods and poor life functioning. The subjects of this study were 467 Japanese university students. The JIDI was administered at Time 1, and the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) was administered at Time 2 for the purpose of assessing dysphoric mood and life functioning. NLEs occurring between Times 1 and 2 were evaluated. The three-factor structure of the JIDI was confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis. The structural equation modeling demonstrated that of the three factors, only one, “emotional reliance”, predisposed individuals to dysphoric mood and poor life functioning, both directly and indirectly, via interpersonal NLEs. Although the other two factors did not increase vulnerability to interpersonal NLEs or dysphoric mood, “lack of social self-confidence” worsened general functioning, and “assertion of autonomy” led to poor functioning in close relationships, both directly. Furthermore, “assertion of autonomy” decreased anxiety levels. As to gender differences, simultaneous analysis of multi-groups showed that female subjects were more likely to become anxious following interpersonal NLEs.

Share and Cite:

Uji, M. , Takagishi, Y. , Adachi, K. & Kitamura, T. (2013). Interpersonal Dependency Inventory: Its Construct Validity and Prediction of Dysphoric Mood and Life Functioning via Negative Life Events. Psychology, 4, 930-936. doi: 10.4236/psych.2013.412134.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Arbuckle, J. L., & Wothke, W. (1995). Amos 4.0 user’s guide. Small Waters Cooperation.
[2] Beck, A. T. (1983). Cognitive therapy of depression: new perspectives. In P. J. Clayton, & J. E. Barnett (Eds.), Treatment for depression: Old controversies and new approaches (pp. 265-290). New York: Raven Press.
[3] Bellak, L., Hurvich, M., & Gediman, H. (1973). Ch. 5: General considerations and rationale for the selection of the 12 ego functions. In Ego functions in schizophrenics, neurotics, and normals (pp. 74-79). New York: Wiley.
[4] Bieling, P. J., Beck, A. T., & Brown, G. K. (2000). The sociotropyautonomy scale: Structure and implications. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 24, 763-780.
[5] Bolger, N., & Schilling, E. A. (1991). Personality and problems of everyday life: The role of neuroticism in exposure and reactivity to daily stressors. Journal of Personality, 59, 355-386.
[6] Daley, S. E., Hammen, C., Burge, D., Davila, J., Paley, B., Lindberg, N., & Herzberg, D. S. (1997). Predictors of generation of episodic stress: A longitudinal study of late adolescent women. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 106, 251-259.
[7] Daley, S. E., Hammen, C., Davila, J., & Burge, D. (1998). Axis II symptomatology, depression, and life stress during the transition from adolescence to adulthood. Journal of Counseling and Clinical Psychology, 66, 595-603.
[8] Davila, J., Hammen, C., Paley, B., & Daley, S. E. (1995). Poor interpersonal problem solving as a mechanism of stress generation in depression among adolescent women. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 104, 592-600.
[9] Evans, C., Connell, J., Barkham, M., Margison, F., McGrath, G., Mellor-Clark, J., & Audin, K. (2002). Towards a standardized brief outcome measure: Psychometric properties and utility of the CORE-OM (clinical outcomes in routine evaluation-outcome measure). British Journal of Psychiatry, 180, 51-60.
[10] Freud, S. (1926). Inhibitions, symptoms and anxiety. In J. Strachey, & A. Freud (Eds.), The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (pp. 77-175). London: The Hogarth Press.
[11] Hammen, C. (1991). Generation of stress in the course of unipolar depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 555-561.
[12] Hirschfeld, R. M. A., Klernman G. L., Gough, H. G., Barrett, J., Korchin, S. J., & Chodoff, P. (1977). A measure of interpersonal dependency. Journal of Personality Assessment, 41, 610-619.
[13] Kendler, K. S., Thornton, L. M., & Prescott, C. A. (2001). Gender differences in the rates of exposure to stressful life events and sensitivity to their depressogenic effects. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 587-593.
[14] Magnus, K., Diener, E., Fujita, F., & Pavot, W. (1993). Extraversion and neuroticism as predictor of objective life events: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 1046-1053.
[15] McDonald-Scott (1988). Interpersonal dependency inventory Japanese short form: Its development and statistical test. The Japanese Journal of Nursing Research, 21, 451-460. (in Japanese)
[16] McLennan, J., & Bates, G. W. (1993). Vulnerability to psychological distress: Empirical and conceptual distinctions between measures of neuroticism and negative affect. Psychological Report, 73, 1315-1323.
[17] Mezulis, A. H., Funasaki, K. S., Charbonneau, A. N., & Hyde, J. S. (2010). Gender differences in the cognitive vulnerability-stress model of depression in the transition to adolescence. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 34, 501-513.
[18] Ormel, J., & Wohlfarth, T. (1991). How neuroticism, long-term difficulties, and life situation change influence psychological distress: A longitudinal model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 744-755.
[19] Rudolph, K. D., & Hammen, C. (2003). Age and gender as determinants of stress exposure, generation, and reactions in youngsters: A transactional perspective. Child Development, 70, 660-667.
[20] Simons, A. D., Angell, K. L., Monroe, S. M., & Thase, M. E. (1993). Cognition and life stressors in depression: Cognitive factors and the definition, rating, and generation of negative life event. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 102, 584-591.
[21] Uji, M., Sakamoto, A., Adachi, K., & Kitamura, T. (2012). Psychometric properties of the Japanese version of the clinical outcomes in routine evaluation-outcome measure. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 53, 600-608.
[22] Winnicott, D. (1958). The capacity to be alone. In M. M. Khan (Ed.), The maturational process and the facilitating environment (pp. 29-36). London: Horgarth Press.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.