Multi-agent Based Protection on Highly Dominated Distributed Energy Resources


Highly penetration of Distributed Energy Resources (DER) on the grid systems nowadays makes the systems grow dynamically. The system become more complex and the protection system become more complicated. The protection relay should accommodate the system changes according to the system conditions and topologies. As part of developmental aspect of Distributed Artificial Intelligent, Multi Agent System (MAS) is a challenging method for improving the intelligent properties of relay protection. This paper introduces the use of MAS approach on radial distribution system protection dominated with DER using dispersed adaptive rule-based protection supported by distributed database agent. The simulation results confirmed that the proposed algorithm can respond within 15.05 ms.

Share and Cite:

S. A. Ananda and J. Gu, "Multi-agent Based Protection on Highly Dominated Distributed Energy Resources," Energy and Power Engineering, Vol. 5 No. 4B, 2013, pp. 927-931. doi: 10.4236/epe.2013.54B177.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] R. C. Dugan and T. E. McDermott, “Distributed Generation,” IEEE Industry Applications Magazine, Vol. 8, No. 2, 2002, pp. 19-25. doi:10.1109/2943.985677
[2] X. J. Zeng, et al., “Multi-agents Based Protection for Distributed Generation Systems,” Electric Utility Deregulation, Restructuring and Power Technologies, 2004 (DRPT 2004), Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE International Conference on. Vol. 1. IEEE, 2004.
[3] A. R. Haron and V. Mohamed and V. Shareef, “A Review on Protection Schemes and Coordination Techniques in Microgrid System,” Journal of Applied Sciences, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2012, pp. 101-112.doi:10.3923/jas.2012.101.112
[4] M. R. Islam, “Study of Micro Grid Safety & Protection Strategies with Control System Infrastructures,” Smart Grid and Renewable Energy, Vol. 03, No. 01, 2012, pp. 1-9, doi:10.4236/sgre.2012.31001
[5] E. Coster, J. Myrzik and W. Kling, “Effect of DG on Distribution Grid Protection,” Distributed Generation, D N Gaonkar (Ed.), InTech, Available from: doi:10.5772/8880
[6] M. PazComech, Miguel Garcia-Gracia, Samuel Borroy and M.TeresaVillen (2010). Protection in Distributed Generation, Distributed Generation, D N Gaonkar (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-307-046-9, InTech, DOI: 10.5772/8887. Available from: doi:10.5772/8887
[7] I. Xyngi and M. Popov, “Smart Protection in Dutch Medium Voltage Distributed Generation Systems,” Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference Europe (ISGT Europe), 2010 IEEE PES. IEEE, 2010.
[8] O. Alexandre, “Advanced Architectures and Control Concepts for MORE MICROGRIDS: Novel protection systems for Microgrids,” Deliverable DC2, Nov (2009).
[9] S. D. J. McArthur, E. M. Davidson, V. M. Catterson, A. L. Dimeas, N. D. Hatziargyriou, F. Ponci and T. Funabashi, “Multi-Agent Systems for Power Engineering Applications — Part I?: Concepts , Approaches , and Technical Challenges,” Power Systems, IEEE Transactions on, Vol. 22, No. 4, 2007, pp. 1743-1752. doi:10.1109/TPWRS.2007.908471
[10] S. D. J. McArthur, E. M. Davidson, V. M. Catterson, A. L. Dimeas, N. D. Hatziargyriou, F. Ponci and T. Funabashi, “Multi-Agent Systems for Power Engineering Applications — Part II?: Technologies , Standards , and Tools for Building Multi-agent Systems,” Power Systems, IEEE Transactions on, Vol. 22, No. 4, 2007, pp. 1753-1759. doi:10.1109/TPWRS.2007.908472
[11] S. D. J. McArthur and E. M. Davidson, “Concepts and Approaches in Multi-Agent Systems for Power Applications, (Invited Paper),” Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on, Intelligent Systems Application to Power Systems, 2005, pp. 391-395.
[12] M. Yang and Y. Zhu, “A Cooperative Protection System with Multi-Agent System,” Conference and Exhibition: Asia and Pacific, 2005, pp. 1-4.
[13] Q. Zhao and S. Liu, “Relay Protection Based on Multi-Agent System,” IEEE International Conference on Electrical and Control Engineering (ICECE), pp. 286-289.
[14] Y. M. Yu and Z. Y. Li, “Application of Multi-Agent System for Adaptive Protection System,” Science paper Online, Available from:
[15] J. H. Chen, S. Chen and Y. M. Yang, “Multi-agent Based Protection Relay System for Transmission Network,” in Machine Learning and Cybernetics, 2003 International Conference on, Vol. 4, 2003, pp. 2251-2254.
[16] H. Gao, Q. Pang and Y. An, “New Type of Protection and Control Method for Smart Distribution Grid,” 11th IET International Conference on Developments in Power Systems Protection (DPSP 2012), 2012, pp. 24-24.
[17] C. Fukui, “A Cooperative Protection System with an Agent Model,” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 13, No. 4, 1998, pp. 1060-1066. doi:10.1109/61.714454
[18] B. Stedall, P. Moore and A. Johns, “An Investigation into the Use of Adaptive Setting Techniques for Improved Distance Back-up Protection,” Power Delivery, IEEE, Vol. 11, No. 2, 1996, pp. 757-762.doi:10.1109/61.489332
[19] A. A. Bittencourt, M. R. De Carvalho and J. G. R. M. Ieee, “Adaptive Strategies in Power Systems Protection using Artificial Intelligence Techniques,” in 2009 15th International Conference on Intelligent System Applications to Power Systems, 2009, pp. 1- 6.
[20] P. C. Maiola and J. G. Rolim, “A Multi-Agent System for Protection Coordination of Radial Systems in the Presence of Distributed Generation,” Systems Protection, 2012, pp. 131-131.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.