Biosorption of Cu(II) Ions from Aqueous Solution by Red Alga (Palmaria Palmata) and Beer Draff
Yang Li, Brigitte Helmreich, Harald Horn
DOI: 10.4236/msa.2011.22010   PDF   HTML     6,492 Downloads   11,971 Views   Citations


In this study, the ability of red alga (Palmaria palmata) and beer draff (brewery waste) for Cu(II) removal was investigated. The influence of factors, such as pH, initial copper concentrations, and contact time, were also studied. Results showed the adsorption process was strongly dependent on the pH value and initial concentration. The optimum pH value was in the range of 5-6. The Langmuir isotherm model performed better than other models, suggesting monolayer adsorption prevailed in the adsorption process. The theoretical adsorption capacities for Cu(II) were 12.7 mg/g and 9.01 mg/g for red alga and beer draff, respectively. The spectroscopy analyses and desorption studies showed that chemical bonding was the main mechanism in the adsorption process rather than ion exchange. The functional groups of amino, hydroxyl, carboxyl, phenolic hydroxyl, sulphonic group and C–O, –NH stretch might be involved in adsorption. After adsorption, both materials were successfully regenerated by nitric acid at a concentration of 10 mmol/L. Furthermore, the phenomenon that only 7% of adsorbed Cu(II) on red alga and 11% on beer draff were desorbed by sodium chloride solution suggested potential alternative of both materials for the treatment of road runoff containing considerable amounts of de-icing salt.

Share and Cite:

Y. Li, B. Helmreich and H. Horn, "Biosorption of Cu(II) Ions from Aqueous Solution by Red Alga (Palmaria Palmata) and Beer Draff," Materials Sciences and Applications, Vol. 2 No. 2, 2011, pp. 70-80. doi: 10.4236/msa.2011.22010.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] M. A. House, J. B. Ellis, E. E. Herricks, T. Hvitved-Jacobsen, J. Seager, L. Lijklema, R. H. Aalderink and I. T. Clifforde, “Urban Drainage Impact on Receiving Water Quality,” Water Science Technology, Vol. 27, No. 12, 1993, pp. 117-158.
[2] K. Sriyaraj and R. B. E. Shutes, “An Assessment of the Impact of Motorway Runoff on a Pond, Wetland and Stream,” Environment International, Vol. 26, No. 5-6, 2001, pp. 433-439. doi:10.1016/S0160-4120(01)00024-1
[3] K. C. Rice, K. M. Conko and G. M. Hornberger, “Anthropogenic Sources of Arsenic and Copper in Sediments in Suburban Lake, Northern Virginia,” Environment Science Technology, Vol. 32, No. 23, 2002, pp. 4962-4967. doi:10.1021/es025727x
[4] B. Helmreich, R. Hilliges, A. Schriewer and H. Horn, “Runoff Pollutants of a Highly Trafficked Urban Road—Correlation Analysis and Seasonal Influences,” Chemosphere, Vol. 80, No. 9, 2010, pp. 991-997. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2010.05.037
[5] K. Perdikaki and C. F. Mason, “Impact of Road Run-off on Receiving Streams in Eastern England,” Water Research, Vol. 33, No. 7, 1998, pp. 1627-1633. doi:10.1016/S0043-1354(98)00396-0
[6] V. J. Inglezakis, M. D. Loizidou and H. P. Grigoropoulou, “Equilibrium and Kinetic Ion Exchange Studies of Pb2+, Cr3+, Fe3+ and Cu2+ on Natural Clinoptilolite,” Water Research, Vol. 36, No. 11, 2002, pp. 2784-2792. doi:10.1016/S0043-1354(01)00504-8
[7] K. Athanasiadis and B. Helmreich, “Influence of Chemical Conditioning on the Ion Exchange Capacity and on Kinetic of Zinc Uptake by Clinoptilolite,” Water Research, Vol. 39, No. 1, 2005, pp. 1527-1532. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2005.01.024
[8] S. E. Bailey, T. J. Olin, R. M. Bricka and D. D. Adrian, “A Review of Potentially Low-Cost Sorbents for Heavy Metals,” Water Research, Vol. 33, No. 11, 1999, pp. 2469-2479. doi:10.1016/S0043-1354(98)00475-8
[9] M. Steiner, “Adsorption of Copper from Stormwater Runoff onto Granulated Iron Hydroxide,” Dissertation, Zurich, 2003.
[10] M. Ajmal, H. A. Khan, S. Ahmad and A. Ahmad, “Role of Sawdust in the Removal of Copper(II) from Industrial Wastes,” Water Research, Vol. 32, No. 10, 1998, pp. 3085-3091. doi:10.1016/S0043-1354(98)00067-0
[11] A. Ahmad, M. Rafatulla and M. Danish, “Sorption Studies of Zn(II) and Cd(II) Ions from Aqueous Solution on Treated Sawdust of Sissoo Wood,” European Journal of Wood Products, Vol. 65, No. 6, 2007, pp. 429-436. doi:10.1007/s00107-007-0175-7
[12] B. Volesky, “Review: Biosorption and Me,” Water Research, Vol. 41, No. 18, 2007, pp. 4017-4029. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2007.05.062
[13] V. K. Gupta and I. Ali, “Removal of Lead and Chromium from Wastewater Using Bagasse Fly Ash—A Sugar Industry Waste,” Journal of Colloid Interface Science, Vol. 271, No. 2, 2004, pp. 321-328. doi:10.1016/j.jcis.2003.11.007
[14] T. A. Davis, B. Volesky and A. Mucci, “A Review of the Biochemistry of Heavy Metal Biosorption by Brown Alga,” Water Research, Vol. 37, No. 18, 2003, pp. 4311-4330. doi:10.1016/S0043-1354(03)00293-8
[15] I. Villaescusa, N. Fiol, M. Martinez, N. Miralles, J. Poch and J. Serarols, “Removal of Copper and Nickel Ions from Aqueous Solutions by Grape Stalks Wastes,” Water Research, Vol. 38, No. 4, 2004, pp. 992-1002. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2003.10.040
[16] G. Yan and T. Viraraghavan, “Heavy-Metal Removal from Aqueous Solution by Fungus Mucor Rouxii,” Water Research, Vol. 37, No. 18, 2003, pp. 4486-4496. doi:10.1016/S0043-1354(03)00409-3
[17] V. Murphy, H. Hughes and P. McLoughlin, “Cu(II) Bonding by Dried Biomass of Red, Green and Brown Macroalgae,” Water Research, Vol. 41, No. 4, 2007, pp. 731-740. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2006.11.032
[18] Z. R. Holan, B. Volesky and I. Prasetyo, “Biosorption of Cadmium by Biomass of Marine Algae,” Biotechnology Bioengineering, Vol. 41, No. 8, 1993, pp. 819-825. doi:10.1002/bit.260410808
[19] Y. S. Yun, D. Park, J. M. Park and B. Volesky, “Biosorption of Trivalent Chromium on the Brown Seaweed Biomass,” Environment Science Technology, Vol. 35, No. 21, 2001, pp. 4353-4358. doi:10.1021/es010866k
[20] C. Lacher and R. W. Smith, “Sorption of Hg(II) by Potamogeton Natans Dead Biomass,” Minerals Engineering, Vol. 15, No. 3, 2002, pp. 187-191. doi:10.1016/S0892-6875(01)00212-6
[21] A. D. Eaton, L. S. Clesceri, E. W. Rice, A. E. Greenberg and M. A. H. Franson, “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater,” 21st Edition, American Public Health Association (APHA), American Water Works Association (AWWA) & Water Environment Federation (WEF), Washington, 2005.
[22] I. Villaescusa, M. Martinez and N. Miralles, “Heavy Metal Uptake from Aqueous Solution by Cork and Yohimbe Bark Wastes,” Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, Vol. 75, No. 9, 2000, pp. 812-816. doi:10.1002/1097-4660(200009)75:9<812::AID-JCTB284>3.0.CO;2-B
[23] B. Yu, Y. Zhang, A. Shukla, S. S. Shukla and L. K. Dorris, “The Removal of Heavy Metals from Aqueous Solutions by Sawdust Adsorption-Removal of Lead and Comparison of Its Adsorption with Copper,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 84, No. 1, 2001, pp. 83-94. doi:10.1016/S0304-3894(01)00198-4
[24] W. S. W. Ngah and M. A. K. M. Hanafiah, “Surface Modification of Rubber (Hevea Rasiliensis) Leaves for the Adsorption of Copper Ions: Kinetic, Thermodynamic and Bonding Mechanisms,” Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, Vol. 84, No. 2, 2008, pp. 192-201. doi:10.1002/jctb.2024
[25] Y. P. Kumar, P. King and V. S. R. K. Prasad, “Removal of Copper from Aqueous Solution Using Ulva Fasciata sp.—A Marine Green Algae,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 137, No. 1, 2006, pp. 367-373. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2006.02.010
[26] K. Vijayaraghavan, R. J. Jegan, K. Palanivelu and M. Velan, “Copper Removal from Aqueous Solution by Marine Green Alga Ulva Reticulate,” Electronic Journal of Biotechnology, Vol. 7, No. 1, 2004, pp. 61-71.
[27] A. Benhammou, A. Yaacoubi, L. Nibou and B. Tanouti, “Adsorption of Metal Ions onto Moroccan Stevensite: Kinetic and Isotherm Studies,” Journal of Colloid Interface Science, Vol. 282, No. 2, 2005, pp. 320-326. doi:10.1016/j.jcis.2004.08.168
[28] S. T. Akar, T. Akar and A. Cabuk, “Decolorization of a Textile Dye, Reactive Red 198 (rr198), by Aspergillus Parasiticus Fungal Biosorbent,” Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering, Vol. 26, No. 2, 2009, pp. 399-405. doi:10.1590/S0104-66322009000200018
[29] M. M. Dubinin and L. V. Radushkevich, “Equation of the Characteristic Curve of Activated Charcoal, Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences,” Physical Chemistry Section, U.S.S.R. 55, 1947, pp. 331-333.
[30] M. S. Onyango, Y. Kojima, O. Aoyi, E. C. Bernardo and H. Matsuda, “Adsorption Equilibrium Modeling and Solution Chemistry Dependence of Fluoride Removal from Water by Trivalent-Cation-Exchanged Zeolite F-9,” Journal of Colloid Interface Science, Vol. 279, No. 2, 2004, pp. 341-350. doi:10.1016/j.jcis.2004.06.038
[31] S. S. Dubey and R. K. Gupta, “Removal Behavior of Babool Bark (Acacia Nilotica) for Submicro Concentrations of Hg2+ from Aqueous Solutions: A Radiotracer Study,” Seperation and Purification Technology, Vol. 41, No. 1, 2005, pp. 21-28. doi:10.1016/j.seppur.2004.03.012
[32] A. Benhammou, A. Yaacoubi, L. Nibou and B. Tanouti, “Adsorption of Metal Ions onto Moroccan Stevensite: Kinetics and Isotherm Studies,” Journal of Colloid Interface Science, Vol. 282, No. 2, 2005, pp. 320-326. doi:10.1016/j.jcis.2004.08.168
[33] E. Fourest and B. Volesky, “Alginate Properties and Heavy Metal Biosorption by Marine Alga,” Application of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Vol. 67, No. 3, 1997, pp. 215-226. doi:10.1007/BF02788799
[34] E. Fourest and B. Volesky, “Contribution of Sulfonate Groups and Alginate to Heavy Metal Biosorption by the Dry Biomass of Sargassum Fluitans,” Environment Science and Technology, Vol. 30, No. 1, 1996, pp. 277-282. doi:10.1021/es950315s
[35] Y. Nuhoglu, E. Malkoc, A. Gürese and N. Canpolat, “The Removal of Cu(II) from Aqueous Solutions by Ulothrix Zonata,” Bioresource Technology, Vol. 85, No. 3, 2002, pp. 331-333. doi:10.1016/S0960-8524(02)00098-6

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.