Effect of Preheating Temperature on the Mechanical and Fracture Properties of Welded Pearlitic Rail Steels

DOI: 10.4236/eng.2013.511101   PDF   HTML     5,113 Downloads   7,682 Views   Citations


The effect of preheating temperature on the mechanical and fracture behavior, hardness, and the microstructure of slot welded pearlitic rail steel were studied. Railhead sections with slots were preheated to 200℃, 300℃, 350℃ and 400℃ before gas metal arc filling to simulate defects repair. Another sample, welded at room temperature (RT) with no preheat, was studied in comparison. The parent rail steel has ultimate strength, yield strength and strain to failure of 1146 MPa, 717 MPa and 9.3%, respectively. Optimum values of these properties for the welded rail steels were found to be 1023 MPa, 655 MPa and 4.7%, respectively, for the 200℃ preheat temperature. On this basis, the optimum weld efficiency was found to be 89.2%. The average apparent fracture toughness KI for the parent rail was 127 MPa.m0.5, while that for the optimum welded joint (200℃ preheat) was 116.5 MPa.m0.5. In addition, the average hardness values of the weld, fusion zone, and heat affected zone (HAZ) were 313.5, 332 and 313.6 HB, respectively, while that for parent rail steel was about 360 HB. Dominance of bainite and acicular ferrite phase in the weld microstructure was observed at 200℃ preheat.

Share and Cite:

H. Aglan, S. Ahmed, K. Prayakarao and M. Fateh, "Effect of Preheating Temperature on the Mechanical and Fracture Properties of Welded Pearlitic Rail Steels," Engineering, Vol. 5 No. 11, 2013, pp. 837-843. doi: 10.4236/eng.2013.511101.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] R. S. Funderburk, “Talking Your Weld’s Temperature,” Proceedings on North American Steel Construction Conference, Las Vegas, February 2000.
[2] BOC Library, AU: IPRM: 2007: Section 8: Consumable, pp. 326-329.
[3] T. Kasuya and N. Yuriok, “Determination of Necessary Preheat Temperature to Avoid Cold Cracking under Varying Ambient Temperature,” ISIJ International, Vol. 35, No. 10, 1995, pp. 1183-1189.
[4] L. Baughurst and G. Voznaks: “Welding Defects, Causes and Correction,” Australian Bulk Handling Review, 2009.
[5] R. W. Hinton and R. K. Wiswesser: “Estimating Welding Preheat Requirements for Unknown Grades of Carbon and Low Alloy Steels,” Welding Journal, Vol. 87, 2008, pp. 273-278.
[6] S. Kou, “Welding Metallurgy,” 2nd Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, 2003, pp. 232-239.
[7] H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia, “Reliability of Weld Microstructure and Property Calculations,” Welding Journal, Vol. 8, No. 9, 2004, pp. 237-243.
[8] W. W. Bose-Filho, A. L. M. Carvalho and M. Strangwood, “Effects of Alloying Elements on the Microstructure and Inclusion Formation in HSLA Multipass Welds,” Materials Characterization., Vol. 58, No. 1, 2007, pp. 29-39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matchar.2006.03.004
[9] H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia, “The Microstructure of Submerged Arc-Weld Deposits for High-Strength Steels,” Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 24, No. 9, 1989, pp. 3180-3188.
[10] Y. Shia and Z. Han, “Effect of Weld Thermal Cycle on Microstructure and Fracture Toughness of Simulated Heat-Affected Zone for a 822 MPa Grade High Strength Low Alloy Steel,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 207, No. 1-3, 2008, pp. 30-39.
[11] R. S. Funderburk, “A Look at Heat Input,” Welding Innovation, Vol. 16, No. 1, 1999, pp. 8-11.
[12] E. M. El-Banna: “Effect of Preheat on Welding of Ductile Cast Iron,” Materials Letters, Vol. 41, No. 1, 1999, pp. 20-26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0167-577X(99)00098-1
[13] L. H. Hu, J. Huang, Z. G. Li and Y. X. Wu, “Effects of Preheating Temperature on Cold Cracks, Microstructures and Properties of High Power Laser Hybrid Welded 10Ni3CrMoV Steel,” Materials & Design, Vol. 32, 2011, pp. 1931-1939.
[14] D. K. Miller, “The Challenge of Welding Jumbo Shapes,” Welding Innovation, Vol. 10, No. 1, 1993, pp. 3-5.
[15] T. Teng and C. Lin, “Effect of Welding Conditions on Residual Stresses Due to Butt Welds,” International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping, Vol. 75, No. 12, 1998, pp. 857-864.
[16] A. Fallahi, K. Jafarpur and M. R. Nami, “Analysis of Welding Conditions Based on Induced Thermal Irreversibilities in Welded Structures: Cases of Welding Sequences and Preheating Treatment,” Scientia Iranica, Vol. 18, No. 3, 2011, pp. 398-406.
[17] R. C. Reed and H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia, “A Simple Model for Multipass Steel Welds,” Acta Metallurgica et Materialia, Vol. 42, No. 11, 1994, pp. 3663-3678.
[18] E. M. El-Banna, M. S. Nageda and M. M. A. El-Saadat, “Study of Restoration by Welding of Pearlitic Ductile Cast Iron,” Materials Letters, Vol. 42, No. 5, 2000, pp. 311-320.
[19] M. Saarna and A. Laansoo, “Rail and Rail Weld Testing,” Proceedings of 4th International DAAAM Conference on Industrial Engineering-Innovation as Competitive Edge for SME, Tallinn, April 2004, pp. 217-219.
[20] T. W. Orange: “Evaluation of Special 301-Type Stainless Steel for Improved Low-Temperature Notch Toughness of Cryoformed Pressure Vessels,” Report TND-3445, NASA, Washington DC, 1966.
[21] J. J. Lewandowski and A. W. Thompson, “Microstructural Effects on the Cleavage Fracture Stress of Fully Pearlitic Eutectoid Steel,” Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, Vol. 17, No. 10, 1986, pp. 1769-1786.
[22] B. Gulenc and N. Kahraman: “Wear Behaviour of Bulldozer Rollers Welded Using a Submerged Arc Welding Process,” Materials & Design., Vol. 24, No. 7, 2003, pp. 537-542.
[23] E. Gharibshahiyan, A. H. Raouf, N.Parvin and M. Rahimian, “The Effect of Microstructure on Hardness and Toughness of Low Carbon Welded Steel Using Inert Gas Welding,” Materials & Design, Vol. 32, No. 4, 2011, pp. 2042-2048. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2010.11.056
[24] Carbon Steel to Austenitic Steel.
[25] R. E. Avery, “Pay Attention to Dissimilar-Metal Weld,” Nickel Development Institute, 1991.
[26] Y. Murakami, “Stress Intensity Factors Handbook,” Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1990, p. 9.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.