Precipitation and Crystallization of Struvite from Synthetic Wastewater under Stoichiometric Conditions


Phosphate (V) ions were continuously removed from synthetic wastewater containing inorganic impurities using magnesium and ammonium ions. The product was magnesium ammonium phosphate (V) hexahydrate, struvite, MgNH4PO4 × 6H2O. Research ran in stoichiometric conditions in DT MSMPR type crystallizer with internal circulation of suspension. Increase in process environment pH from 9 to 11 resulted in 3-time decrease of mean struvite crystals size (from 40.1 to12.6mm). Elongation of mean residence time of suspension in a crystallizer up to 3600 s resulted in improvement of the product quality. Mean size of struvite crystals enlarged up to50.2mm. Based on kinetic calculations results (SIG MSMPR model) it was concluded, that linear struvite crystal growth rate varied within 5.04 × 10–9 – 1.69 × 10–8 m/s range, whereas nucleation rate within 1.4 × 107 – 1.7 × 1010 1/(s m3) limits. In solid product, besides struvite, also all impurities present in wastewater were identified analytically as hydroxides, phosphates and other salts.

Share and Cite:

A. Kozik, N. Hutnik, K. Piotrowski, A. Mazienczuk and A. Matynia, "Precipitation and Crystallization of Struvite from Synthetic Wastewater under Stoichiometric Conditions," Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science, Vol. 3 No. 4B, 2013, pp. 20-26. doi: 10.4236/aces.2013.34B004.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] K. S. Le Corre, E. Valsami–Jones, P. Hobbs and S. A. Parsons, “Phosphorus Recovery from Wastewater by Struvite Crystallization: A Review,” Critical Reviews Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 39, 2009, pp. 433-477. doi:10.1080/10643380701640573
[2] S. Parsons, “Recent Scientific and Technical Developments: Struvite Precipitation,” CEEP Scope Newslett., Vol. 41, 2001, pp. 15-22.
[3] J. Doyle and S. A. Parsons, “Struvite Formation, Control and Recovery,” Water Research, Vol. 36, 2002, pp. 3925-3940. doi:10.1016/S0043-1354(02)00126-4
[4] A. Matynia, B. Wierzbowska, N. Hutnik, K. Piotrowski, R. Liszka, T. Ciesielski and A. Mazienczuk, “Method for Struvite Recovery from Wastewater of Mineral Fertilizer Industry,” Przem. Chem., Vol. 89, 2010, pp. 478-485.
[5] N. Hutnik, K. Piotrowski, J. Gluzinska and A. Matynia, “Effect of Selected Inorganic Impurities Present in Real Phosphate(V) Solutions on the Quality of Struvite Crystals Produced in Continuous Reaction Crystallization Process,” Progr. Environ. Sci. Technol., Vol. 3, 2011, pp. 559-566.
[6] N. Hutnik, A. Kozik, A. Mazienczuk, K. Piotrowski, B. Wierzbowska and A. Matynia, “Phosphates(V) Recovery from Phosphorus Mineral Fertilizers Industry Wastewater by Continuous Struvite Reaction Crystallization Process,” Water Research, Vol. 47, 2013. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2013.04.026
[7] J. Koralewska, K. Piotrowski, B. Wierzbowska and A. Matynia, “Kinetics of Reaction–crystallization of Struvite in the Continuous Draft Tube Magma Type Crystallizers – influence of Different Internal Hydrodynamics,” Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering, Vol. 17, 2009, pp. 330-339. doi:10.1016/S1004-9541(08)60212-8
[8] A. Mazienczuk, N. Hutnik, K. Piotrowski, B. Wierzbowska and A. Matynia, “Continuous Crystallizers with Jet Pump Driven by Recirculated Mother Solution in Production of Struvite,” Przem. Chem., Vol. 91, 2012, pp. 890-895.
[9] A. Kozik, K. Piotrowski, B. Wierzbowska and A. Matynia, “Recovery of Phosphate (V) Ions from Wastewaters of Different Chemical Compositions,” Progr. Environ. Sci. Technol., Vol. 3, 2011, pp. 550-558.
[10] A. Kozik, A. Matynia and K. Piotrowski, “Continuous Reaction Crystallization of Struvite from Diluted Aqueous Solutions of Phosphate (V) Ions in DT MSMPR Crystallizer,” Proceedia Engineering, Vol. 42, 2012, pp. 313-322. doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2012.07.422
[11] J. W. Mullin, “Crystallization”, Butterworth–Heinemann, Oxford, 1993.
[12] A. D. Randolph and M. A. Larson, “Theory of Particulate Processes: Analysis and Techniques of Continuous Crystallization”, Academic Press, New York, 1988.
[13] K. N. Ohlinger, T. M. Young and E. D. Schroeder, “Predicting Struvite Formation in Digestion,” Water Research, Vol. 32, 1998, pp. 3607-3614. doi:10.1016/S0043-1354(98)00123-7
[14] V. L. Snoeyink and D. Jenkins, “Water Chemistry,” Wiley, New York, 1980.
[15] N. Hutnik, K. Piotrowski, A. Kozik and A. Matynia, “Continuous Reaction Crystallization of Struvite from phosphate(V) Solutions Containing Inorganic Impurities –SIG kinetic Approach,” Proceedings of the 38th International Conference of Slovak Society of Chemical Engineering SSCHE, Tatranské Matliare, 23-27 May 2011, pp. 325-0333.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.