Share This Article:

The Application of the Ground Source and Air-to-Water Heat Pumps in Cold Climate Areas

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:1425KB) PP. 473-481
DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2013.47054    3,466 Downloads   5,354 Views   Citations


This article gives an overview of using the ground source heat pump (GSHP) and air-to-water heat pump (A&WHP) in cold climate areas for heating and for domestic hot water production of buildings. Computer simulation and analysis were carried out for a typical detached house, with 200 m2 of living area, the heat demand of 9 kW and the average heat demand for DHW production of 1 kW. In heating period the average Coefficient of Performance (COP) of the A&WHP is considerably lower than COP of the GSHP.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

K. Tennokese, T. Kõiv, A. Mikola and V. Vares, "The Application of the Ground Source and Air-to-Water Heat Pumps in Cold Climate Areas," Smart Grid and Renewable Energy, Vol. 4 No. 7, 2013, pp. 473-481. doi: 10.4236/sgre.2013.47054.


[1] Ch. Tian and N. Liang, “State of Art of Air-Source Heat Pump for Cold Regions,” Proceedings of the 6th International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Shenzhen, 6-9 November 2006, Renewable Energy Resources and a Greener Future, Vol. VIII-12-5.
[2] F. Karlsson, “Capacity Control of Residential Heat Pump Heating Systems,” Thesis for the Degree of Doctor of Pholosophy, Chalmers University of Technology, Gotenborg, 2007.
[3] F. Karlsson, M. Axell and P. Fahlén, “Heat Pump Systems in Sweden—Country Report for IEA HPP Annex 28,” 2003.
[4] IEA Heat Pump Centre, “Heat Pump in Residential and Commercial Buildings,” 2013.
[5] ASHRAE, “Handbook of HVAC Systems and Equipment,” American Society of Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, 2008.
[6] E. Abel and H. Voll, “Building Energy Consumption and Indoor Climate (Estonian),” Presshouse, Tallinn, 2010.
[7] V. Penjam, “Heat Pumps COP in the Estonian Context and Environmental Pollution Emissions Compare to Localized Heating System Commonly Used Fuels (Estonian),” Tallinn, 2005.
[8] J. Hayton, “Calculation Procedure for the SAP Appendix Q Process for Electrically Driven Heat Pumps,” 2010.
[9] N. Diao, Q. Li and Z. Fang, “Heat Transfer in Ground Heat Exchanger with Groundwater Advection,” International Journal of Thermal Sciences, Vol. 43, No. 12, 2004, pp. 1203-1211.
[10] O. Ozgener and A. Hepbasli, “Modeling and Performance Evaluation of Ground Source (Geothermal) Heat Pump Systems,” Energy and Buildings, Vol. 39, No. 1, 2007, pp. 66-75.
[11] A. M. Omer, “Ground-Source Heat Pumps Systems and Applications,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2008, pp. 344-371.
[12] Y. Nam, R. Ooka and S. Hwang, “Development of a Numerical Model to Predict Heat Exchange Rates for a Ground-Source Heat Pump System,” Energy and Buildings, Vol. 40, No. 12, 2008, pp. 2133-2140.
[13] V. R. Tarnawski, W. H. Leong, T. Momose and Y. Hamada, “Analysis of Ground Source Heat Pumps with Horizontal Ground Heat Exchangers for Northern Japan,” Renewable Energy, Vol. 34, No. 1, 2009, pp. 127-134.
[14] P. Cui, X. Li, Y. Man and Z. Fang, “Heat Transfer Analysis of Pile Geothermal Heat Exchangers with Spiral Coils,” Applied Energy, Vol. 88, No. 11, 2011, pp. 4113-4119.
[15] M. Li and A. C. K. Lai, “Heat-Source Solution to Heat Conduction in Anisotropic Media with Application to Pile and Borehole Ground Heat Exchangers,” Applied Energy, Vol. 96, 2012, pp. 451-458.
[16] S. Park, S.-R. Lee, H. Park, S. Yoon and J. Chung, “Characteristics of an Analytical Solution for a Spiral Coil Type Ground Heat Exchanger,” Computers and Geotechnics, Vol. 49, 2013, pp. 18-24.
[17] B. Poel, G. Cruchten, van A. Constantinos and A. C. Balaras, “Energy Performance Assessment of Existing Dwellings,” Energy and Buildings, Vol. 39, No. 4, 2007, pp. 393403.
[18] EN. Directive 2002/91/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2002 on the Energy Performance of Buildings, “Official Journal of the European Communities,” Vol. 4, No. 1, 2003, pp. L1/65-L1/ 71.
[19] Ministry of Economic Affairs and Communications Ordinance No. 63, “Hoonete Energiatohususe Arvutamise Metoodika. (Methodology for Calculating the Energy Performance of Buildings) (08.10.2012); RT I, 18.10.2012, 1,” 2012.
[20] Getting Started with IDA Indoor Climate and Energy 4. EQUA Simulation AB, September 2009.
[21] T. Kalamees and J. Kurnitski, “Estonian Test Reference Year for Energy Calculations,” Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Science Engineering, Vol. 12, No. 1, 2006, pp. 40-58.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.