Does Making Method of Alginate Hydrogel Influence the Chondrogenic Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells?


To overcome cartilage injury, strategies have been developed in the last few years based on tissue engineering to rebuild the defects. Cartilage engineering is principally based on three main biological factors: cells (native cells (chondrocytes) or a more primitive ones as mesenchymal stem cells), scaffolds and functionalization factors (growth factors, mechanical stimulation and/or hypoxia). Cartilage tissue engineering strategies generally result in homogeneous tissue structures with little resemblance to native zonal organization of articular cartilage. The main objective of our work concerns the buildup of complex biomaterials aimed at reconstructing biological tissue with three dimensional cells construction for mimicking cartilage architecture. Our strategy is based on structures formation by simple and progressive spraying of mixed alginate hydrogel and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). In this work, the comportment of cells and more precisely their chondrogenic differentiation potential is compared to a traditional making process: the mold. We report here that spraying method allowed to product a scaffold with hMSC that confer a favorable environment for neocartilage construction.

Share and Cite:

J. Schiavi, N. Charif, N. Isla, D. Bensoussan, J. Stoltz, N. Benkirane-Jessel and C. Huselstein, "Does Making Method of Alginate Hydrogel Influence the Chondrogenic Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells?," Engineering, Vol. 4 No. 10B, 2012, pp. 110-113. doi: 10.4236/eng.2012.410B028.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] C. Chung and J. A. Burdick, "Engineering cartilage tissue," Adv Drug Deliv Rev, vol. 60, pp. 243-62, 2008.
[2] R. Langer and J. P. Vacanti, "Tissue engineering," Science, vol. 260, pp. 920-6, 1993.
[3] L. D. Solorio, A. S. Fu, R. Hernández-Irizarry, and E. Alsberg, "Chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cell aggregates via controlled release of TGF-beta1 from incorporated polymer microspheres," Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, vol. 92A, pp. 1139-1144, 2009.
[4] E. Fragonas, M. Valente, M. Pozzi-Mucelli, R. Toffanin, R. Rizzo, F. Silvestri, and F. Vittur, "Articular cartilage repair in rabbits by using suspensions of allogenic chondrocytes in alginate," Biomaterials, vol. 21, pp. 795-801, 2000.
[5] E. Han, W. C. Bae, N. D. Hsieh-Bonassera, V. W. Wong, B. L. Schumacher, S. Gortz, K. Masuda, W. D. Bugbee, and R. L. Sah, "Shaped, stratified, scaffold-free grafts for articular cartilage defects," Clin Orthop Relat Res, vol. 466, pp. 1912-20, 2008.
[6] N. S. Hwang, S. Varghese, H. J. Lee, P. Theprungsirikul, A. Canver, B. Sharma, and J. Elisseeff, "Response of zonal chondrocytes to extracellular matrix-hydrogels," FEBS Lett, vol. 581, pp. 4172-8, 2007.
[7] K. S. Stok, G. Lisignoli, S. Cristino, A. Facchini, and R. Muller, "Mechano-functional assessment of human mesenchymal stem cells grown in three-dimensional hyaluronan-based scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering," J Biomed Mater Res A, vol. 93, pp. 37-45, Apr 2009.
[8] A. Derfoul, G. L. Perkins, D. J. Hall, and R. S. Tuan, "Glucocorticoids promote chondrogenic differentiation of adult human mesenchymal stem cells by enhancing expression of cartilage extracellular matrix genes," Stem Cells, vol. 24, pp. 1487-95, Jun 2006.
[9] C. S. Lee, J. P. Gleghorn, N. Won Choi, M. Cabodi, A. D. Stroock, and L. J. Bonassar, "Integration of layered chondrocyte-seeded alginate hydrogel scaffolds," Biomaterials, vol. 28, pp. 2987-93, 2007.
[10] K. W. Ng, C. C. B. Wang, R. L. Mauck, T.-A. N. Kelly, N. O. Chahine, K. D. Costa, G. A. Ateshian, and C. T. Hung, "A layered agarose approach to fabricate depth-dependent inhomogeneity in chondrocyte-seeded constructs," Journal of Orthopaedic Research, vol. 23, pp. 134-141, 2005.
[11] B. A. Harley, A. K. Lynn, Z. Wissner-Gross, W. Bonfield, I. V. Yannas, and L. J. Gibson, "Design of a multiphase osteochondral scaffold III: Fabrication of layered scaffolds with continuous interfaces," J Biomed Mater Res A, vol. 92, pp. 1078-93, Mar 1.
[12] T. J. Klein, S. C. Rizzi, J. C. Reichert, N. Georgi, J. Malda, W. Schuurman, R. W. Crawford, and D. W. Hutmacher, "Strategies for zonal cartilage repair using hydrogels," Macromol Biosci, vol. 9, pp. 1049-58, Nov 10 2009.
[13] T. J. Klein, B. L. Schumacher, T. A. Schmidt, K. W. Li, M. S. Voegtline, K. Masuda, E. J. Thonar, and R. L. Sah, "Tissue engineering of stratified articular cartilage from chondrocyte subpopulations," Osteoarthritis Cartilage, vol. 11, pp. 595-602, Aug 2003.
[14] J. Tritz, R. Rahouadj, N. d. Isla, N. Charif, A. Pinzano, D. Mainard, D. Bensoussan, P. Netter, J.-F. Stoltz, N. Benki-rane-Jessel, and C. Huselstein., "Designing a three-dimensional alginate hydrogel by spraying method for cartilage tissue engineering," Soft Matter, vol. 6, pp. 5165-5174, 2010.
[15] H. Mjahed, C. Porcel, B. Senger, A. Chassepot, P. Netter, P. Gillet, G. Decher, J.-C. Voegel, P. Schaaf, N. Benkirane-Jessel, and F. Boulmedais, "Micro-stratified architectures based on successive stacking of alginate gel layers and poly(L-lysine)–hyaluronic acid multilayer films aimed at tissue engineering," Soft matter, vol. 4, pp. 1422-1429, 2008.
[16] J. Tritz-Schiavi, N. Charif, C. Henrionnet, N. de Isla, D. Bensoussan, J. Magdalou, N. Benkirane-Jessel, J. F. Stoltz, and C. Huselstein, "Original approach for cartilage tissue engineering with mesenchymal stem cells," Biomed Mater Eng, vol. 20, pp. 167-74, 2010.
[17] M. Wong, M. Siegrist, X. Wang, and E. Hunziker, "Development of mechanically stable alginate/chondrocyte constructs: effects of guluronic acid content and matrix synthesis," J Orthop Res, vol. 19, pp. 493-9, 2001.
[18] S. C. N. Chang, J. A. Rowley, G. Tobias, N. G. Genes, A. K. Roy, D. J. Mooney, C. A. Vacanti, and L. J. Bonassar, "Injection molding of chondrocyte/alginate constructs in the shape of facial implants," Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, vol. 55, pp. 503-511, 2001.
[19] G. M. Williams, T. J. Klein, and R. L. Sah, "Cell density alters matrix accumulation in two distinct fractions and the mechanical integrity of alginate-chondrocyte constructs," Acta Biomater, vol. 1, pp. 625-33, 2005.
[20] Y. Wang, N. de Isla, C. Huselstein, B. Wang, P. Netter, J. F. Stoltz, and S. Muller, "Effect of alginate culture and mechanical stimulation on cartilaginous matrix synthesis of rat dedifferentiated chondrocytes," Biomed Mater Eng, vol. 18, pp. S47-54, 2008.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.