Microcystin Accumulation in Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus and Giant Freshwater Prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii in Green Water System Cultivation


Phytoplankton including blue-green algal or cyanobacterial blooms frequently occurred in aquaculture ponds. Some cyanobacteria produced cyanotoxins that may accumulate in the food web and eventually in the aquaculture products. In this study, accumulatation of microcystins in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) cultured in green water system was investigated.Nile tilapia was cultured in green water system and fish food; green water system with Microcystis aeruginosa Kützingand fish food and green water system with M. aeruginosa. Giant freshwater prawn was cultured: in green water systems with and without toxic M. aeruginosa. Microcystins of 8.32±0.76 and9.35±1.45μg·kg—1 d.w. were detected in fish cultured in green water system with M. aeruginosa and fish food and in green water system with M. aeruginosa, respectively. Microcystins of 14.42±1.63 μg·kg—1 was found in prawn samples. It implied that aquaculture products were likely to be contaminated with microcystins. This finding is useful for aquaculture in terms of food safety.

Share and Cite:

K. Ruangrit, Y. Peerapornpisal, J. Pekkoh and N. Whangchai, "Microcystin Accumulation in Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus and Giant Freshwater Prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii in Green Water System Cultivation," International Journal of Geosciences, Vol. 4 No. 5B, 2013, pp. 60-63. doi: 10.4236/ijg.2013.45B010.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] DOF, “Fisheries Statistics of Thailand 2005,” Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, Bangkok, Thailand, 2007.
[2] N. Whangchai, K. Kannika, S. Deejing, T. Itayama, N. Iwami, T. Kuwabara and Y. Peerapornpisal, “Growth Performance and Accumulation of Off-Flavor in Red Tilapia, Oreochromis niliticus x Oreochromis mosambicus, Cultured by Green Water System Using Chicken Manure,” Asian Environmental Research, Vol. 1, 2008, pp. 8-15.
[3] N. Whangchai, T. Ungsethaphand, C. Chitmanat, K. Mengumphan and S. Uraiwan, “Performance of Giant Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man) Reared in Earthen Ponds Beneath Plastic Film Shelters,” Chiang Mai Journal of Sciences, Vol. 34, No. 1, 2007, pp. 89-96.
[4] H. R. Kankaanpää, J. Holliday, H. Schröder, T. J. Goddard, R. von Fister and W. W. Carmichael, “Cyanobacteria and Prawn Farming in Northern New South Wales, Australia—A Case Study on Cyanobacteria Diversity and Hepatotoxin Bioaccumulation,” Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Vol. 203, No. 3, 2005, pp. 243-256. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2004.04.012
[5] J. C. Martins and V. M. Vasconcelos, “Microcystin Dynamics in Aquatic Organisms,” Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B, Vol. 12, 2009, pp. 65–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10937400802545151
[6] T. Papadimitriou, I. Kagalou, V. Bacopoulos and I. D. Leonardos, “Accumulation of Microcystins in Water and Fish Tissues: An Estimation of Risks Associated with Microcystins in Most of the Greek Lakes,” Environmental Toxicology, Vol. 25, No. 4, 2010, pp. 418-427. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tox.20513
[7] W. Yongmanitchai, P. Intachot and D. Chonudomkul, “Survey of Cyanobacterial Diversity in Thailand,” In: Workshop on Eutrophication and Toxic Cyanobacteria in Reservoirs, Water Research Center, Chiang Mai, 2001.
[8] Y. Peerapornpisal, W. Sonthichai, M. Sukchotiratana, S. Lipigorngoson, W. Ruangyuttikarn, K. Ruangrit, J. Pekkoh, R. Prommana, N. Panuvanitchakorn, N. Ngearnpat, S. Kiatpradub and S. Promkutkaew, “Survey and Monitoring of Toxic Cyanobacteria in Water Supplied and Fisheries in Thailand,” Chiang Mai Journal of Sciences, Vol. 29, No. 2, 2002. pp. 71-79.
[9] J. Pekkoh, “Diversity and Cyanotoxins of Toxic Cyanobacteria in Some Water Resources of Thailand,” Ph.D. Thesis, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 2008.
[10] K. Ruangrit, N. Whangchai, W. Ruangyuttikarn, J. Pekkoh and Y. Peerapornpisal, “First Report on Microcystins Contamination in Giant Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and Nile Tilapia (Tilapia nilotica) Cultured in Earthen Ponds,” International Journal of Agriculture & Biology, Vol. 13, No. 6, 2011, pp. 1025-1028.
[11] FAO, “Farming Freshwater Prawns: A Manual for the Culture of the Giant River Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),” Fisheries Technical Paper 428, 2002.
[12] J. Komárek and J. Komáková-Legnerová, “Review of European Microcystis-morphospecies (Cyanoprokaryotes) from Nature,” Czech Phycology, Olomouc, Vol. 2, 2002, pp. 1-22.
[13] F. Hindak, “Colour Atlas of Cyanophytes,” VEDA, Publishing House of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, 2008.
[14] V. F. Magalhães, R. M. Soares and S. M. F. O. Azevedo, “Microcystin Contamination in Fish from the Jacrepaqua Lagoon (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil): Ecological Implication and Human Health Risk,” Toxicon, Vol. 39, 2001, pp. 1077-1085. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0041-0101(00)00251-8
[15] V. F. Magalhães, M. M. Marinho, P. Domingos; A. C. Oliveira, S. M. Costa, L. O. Azevedo and S. M. F. O. Azevedo, “Microcystins (Cyanobacteria hepatotoxins) Bioaccumulation in Fish and Crustaceans from Sepetiba Bay (Brasil, RJ),” Toxicon, Vol. 42, 2003, pp. 289-295. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0041-0101(03)00144-2
[16] R. M. Soares, V. F. Magalhaes and S. M. F. O. Azevedo, “Accumulation and Depuration of Microcystins (Cyanobacteria hepatotoxins) in Tilapia rendalli (Cichlidae) under Laboratory Conditions,” Aquatic Toxicology, Vol. 70, 2004, pp. 1-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2004.06.013

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.