Safety Assurance for Challenging Geotechnical Civil Engineering Constructions in Urban Areas


Safety is the most important aspect during design, construction and service time of any structure, especially for challenging projects like high-rise buildings and tunnels in urban areas. A high level design considering the soil-structure- interaction, based on a qualified soil investigation is required for a safe and optimised design. Due to the complexity of geotechnical constructions the safety assurance guaranteed by the 4-eye-principle is essential. The 4-eye-principle consists of an independent peer review by publicly certified experts combined with the observational method. The paper presents the fundamental aspects of safety assurance by the 4-eye-principle. The application is explained on several examples, as deep excavations, complex foundation systems for high-rise buildings and tunnel constructions in urban areas. The experiences made in the planning, design and construction phases are explained and for new inner urban projects recommendations are given.

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R. Katzenbach, C. Bergmann and S. Leppla, "Safety Assurance for Challenging Geotechnical Civil Engineering Constructions in Urban Areas," Open Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 3 No. 3B, 2013, pp. 33-38. doi: 10.4236/ojce.2013.33B006.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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