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Acute Toxicity and Antipyretic Activities of a Methanolic Extract of Alchornea cordifolia Leaves

DOI: 10.4236/pp.2013.47A2001    3,839 Downloads   6,948 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Alchornea cordifolia (Euphorbiaceae) is a very prized plant among traditional healers in Africa. Its leaves are used for its antipyretic properties in traditional areas. The aim of our study is to determine the acute toxicity and the antipyretic activity of a methanolic extract of Alchornea cordifolia leaves. Acute toxicity was assessed by measuring mortality, changes in body weight, spontaneous movements, and normal rectal temperature in mice. Antipyretic activity was evaluated by brewer’s yeast-induced hyperpyrexia in rats according to Teotino method (1963). The antipyretic effect of methanolicextract of Alchornea cordifolia leaves was compared with paracetamol (100 mg/kg bw) orally. Groups of mice treated with doses of 6500; 3250; 1625 and 812.5mg/kg of the extract did not show any mortality, nor significant alteration of body weight, nor alteration of spontaneous movements. However, incomplete reversed dose-dependent hypothermic activity was observed with doses of 50.78; 101.56; 203.12; 406.25; and 812.5 mg/kg p.o. of the extract, showing acute toxicity of this plant. In the antipyretic assay, the extract with doses of 50.78; 101.56; 203.12; 406.25; and 812.5 mg/kg p.o. exhibited a significant dose-dependent antipyretic activity similar to paracetamol (100 mg/kg bw) in rats. Thus Alchornea cordifolia may inhibit prostaglandins-biosynthesis from hypothalamus. Our results support claims on its traditional uses in management of fever. However Alchornea cordifolia may affect hypothalamus not only during fever but also when body temperature is normal.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

K. Effo, G. Kouakou-Siransy, G. Irie-Nguessan, R. Sawadogo, I. Dally, A. Kamenan, L. Kouakou and J. Kablan-Brou, "Acute Toxicity and Antipyretic Activities of a Methanolic Extract of Alchornea cordifolia Leaves," Pharmacology & Pharmacy, Vol. 4 No. 7B, 2013, pp. 1-6. doi: 10.4236/pp.2013.47A2001.

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