Trans Fatty Acid Content of Iranian Edible Oils


Clinical and epidemiologic studies showed that among dietary factors the type of fatty acids (FAs) in the diet plays an important role in determining risk of chronic disease. The aim of our study was to determine the levels of Trans FA (TFA) in edible oil samples consumed in Tehran, Iran analyzed by gas chromatograph (GC). The mean of total TFA was 0.45% ranging from (0.11% - 1.61%) for liquid frying oils and 2.92% ranging from (0.46% - 5.40%) for solid oils. The major TFA observed in these two groups was elaidic acid in solid oils. The highest content of total saturated fatty acid (SFA) was detected in solid oils with average of 32.07 and palmitic acid was the major SFA in these four groups. Linoleic and linolenic acid are the most important poly unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). The variance in the percentage of TFA in the edible oils probably resulted from differences in the type of oils, quality, heating, processing technique and storage condition of the edible oils. The results indicated that, edible oils contain considerable proportions of trans fatty acids. Therefore, it is important to assess the content of TFA in edible oils in Iran.

Share and Cite:

M. Hajimahmoodi, S. Arami, M. Nosrati, G. Moghaddam, N. Sadeghi, M. Oveisi, B. Jannat and F. Mazdeh, "Trans Fatty Acid Content of Iranian Edible Oils," Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 11, 2013, pp. 1167-1174. doi: 10.4236/fns.2013.411150.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] F. Priego-Capote, J. Ruiz-Jimenez, J. Garcia-Olmo and M. D. Luque de castro, “Fast Method for the Determination of Total Fat and Trans Fatty-Acids Content in Bakery Products Based on Microwave-Assisted Soxhlet Extrac tion and Medium Infrared Spectroscopy Detection,” Ana lytica Chimica Acta, Vol. 517, No. 1-2, 2004, pp. 13-20.
[2] L. Arab, “Biomarkers of Fat and Fatty Acid Intake,” ASNS, Vol. 133, No. 3, 2003, pp. 925-932.
[3] N. R. Matthan, F. K. Welty, P. H. Barrett, C. Harausz, G. G. Dolnikowski and J. S. Parks, et al., “Dietaryhydrogenated Fat Increases High-Density Lipoprotein Apo A-I Catabolism and Decreases Low-Density Lipoprotein Apo B-100 Catabolism in Hypercholesterolemic Women,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, Vol. 24, No. 6, 2004, pp. 1092-1097.
[4] P. Juanéda, M. Ledoux and J. L. Sébédio, “Analytical Methods for Determination of Trans FA Content in Food,” European Journal of Lipid Science and Technol ogy, Vol. 109, No. 9, 2007, pp. 901-917.
[5] E. Larque, S. Zamora and A. Gil, “Dietary Trans Fatty Acids in Early Life: A Review,” Early Human Develop ment, Vol. 65, No. 2, 2001, pp. 31-41.
[6] M. Tavella, G. Peterson, M. Espeche, E. Cavallero, L. Cipolla and L. Perego, et al.,“Trans Fatty Acid Content of a Selection of Foods in Argentina,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 69, No. 2, 2000, pp. 209-213.
[7] A. Baylin, X. Siles, A. Donovan-Palmer, X. Fernandez and H. Campos, “Fatty Acid Composition of Costa Rican Foods Including Trans Fatty Acid Content,” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, Vol. 20, No. 3-4, 2007, pp. 182-192.
[8] E. K. Richer, K. A. Shawish, M. R. Scheeder and P. C. Colombani, “Trans Fatty Acid Content of Selected Swiss Foods: The Transswiss Pilot Study,” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, Vol. 22, No. 5, 2009, pp. 479-484.
[9] A. Tekin, M. Cizmeci, H. Karabacak and M. Kayahan, “Trans FA and Solid Fat Contents of Margarines Mar keted in Turkey,” American Oil Chemists’ Society, Vol. 79, No. 5, 2002, pp. 443-445.
[10] C. A. Martin, R. Carapelli, J. V. Visantainer, M. Matsushita and N. E. Souza, “Trans Fatty Acid Content of Brazilian Biscuits,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 93, No. 3, 2005, pp. 445-448.
[11] D. Mozaffarian, M. Abdollahi, H. Campos, A. HoushiarRad and W.C. Willett, “Consumption of Trans Fats and Estimated Effects on Coronary Heart Disease in Iran,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 61, 2007, pp. 1004-1010.
[12] S. Asgary, B. Nazari, N. Sarrafzadegan, S. Saberi, L. Azadbakht and A. Esmaillzadeh, “Fatty Acid Composition of Commercially Available Iranian Edible Oils,” Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, Vol. 14, No. 4, 2009, pp. 211-215.
[13] D. Mozaffarian, M. B. Katan, A. Ascherio, M. J. Stamp fer and W. C. Willett, “Trans Fatty Acids and Cardiovas cular Disease,” New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 354, No. 15, 2006, pp. 1601-1613.
[14] D. B. Allison, S. K. Egan, L. M. Barraj, C. Caughman, M. Infante and J. T. Heimbach, “Estimated Intakes of Trans Fatty and Other FAs in the US Population,” Journal of the American Dental Association, Vol. 99, No. 2, 1999, pp. 166-174.
[15] S. Asgary, B. Nazari, N. Sarrafzadegan, S. Saberi, L. Azadbakht and A. Esmaillzadeh, et al., “Evaluation of FA Content of Some Iranian Fast Foods with Emphasis on Trans FAs,” Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 18, No. 2, 2009, pp. 187-192.
[16] AOCS Official Method Ce, “Preparations of Methyl Esters of Fatty Acids,” 1997, pp. 2-66.
[17] M. T. Tarrago-Trani, K. M. Phillips, L. E. Lemar and J. M. Holdon, “New and Existing Oils and Fats Used in Products with Reduced Trans-Fatty Acid Content,” Jour nal of the American Dietetic Association, Vol. 106, No. 6, 2006, pp. 867-880.
[18] R. L. Wolff, “Are Trans Isomers of Alpha-Linolenic Acid of Nutritional Significance for Certain Populations,” Lip ids, Vol. 37, No. 12, 2002, pp. 1147-1148.
[19] A. Kandhro, S. T. H. Sherazi, S. A. Mahesar, M. Bhanger, Y. Talpur and A. Rauf, “GC-MS Quantification of Fatty Acid Profile Including Trans FA in the Locally Manufac tured Margarines of Pakistan,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 109, No. 1, 2008, pp. 207-211.
[20] K. Hulsof, M. A. Van Erp-Baart and M. Anttolanin, et al., “Intake of FAs in Western Europe with Emphasis on Trans FAs: The TRANSFAIR Study,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 53, No. 2, 1999, pp. 143-157.
[21] T. Leth, H. G. Jensen, A. A. Mikkelsen and A. Bysted, “The Effect of the Regulation on Trans FA Content in Danish Food,” Atherosclerosis Supplements, Vol. 7, No. 2, 2006, pp. 53-56.
[22] M. B. Katan, “Exit Trans FAs,” Lancet, Vol. 346, No. 8985, 1995, pp. 1245-1246.
[23] G. Ghafoorunissa, “Role of Trans FAs in Health and Challenges to Their Reduction in Indian Foods,” Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 17, No. 1, 2008, pp. 212-215.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.