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Long-Term Detection of Propofol Glucuronide in Urine Following Anesthetic Induction and Maintenance with Propofol

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DOI: 10.4236/pp.2013.47076    5,842 Downloads   8,111 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Propofol is the most commonly used compound for the intravenous induction and maintenance of anesthesia. Propofol addiction and abuse have become causes for concern in the healthcare community, especially among anesthesia and surgical professionals. The US Drug Enforcement Administration does not list propofol on any Schedules and most hospitals do not have inventory controls in place to prevent its misuse. Propofol is detectable in blood plasma as the parent compound for as much as 15 hours post-anesthesia. The metabolite propofol glucuronide (PPFG) has been detected in blood and urine as far out as 60 hours. Here we report the long-term renal excretion of PPFG in specimens from A) four participants following a 14-day course of orally ingested propofol dosing, and B) a female patient following anesthetic induction and 15 minutes’ maintenance with propofol. Urinary PPFG was measurable well above limits of quantitation up to 6 days following oral ingestion and 28 days post-anesthesia. We also present a third set of data evaluating the likelihood of passive exposure to aerosolized propofol in the surgical environment by analyzing the levels of urinary PPFG of healthcare workers following operating room work shifts. The results presented here demonstrate that quantitation of PPFG in urinary samples is an efficient method of long-term screening for propofol misuse and abuse.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

J. Salerno, J. Jones, M. Jones, C. Plate and D. Lewis, "Long-Term Detection of Propofol Glucuronide in Urine Following Anesthetic Induction and Maintenance with Propofol," Pharmacology & Pharmacy, Vol. 4 No. 7, 2013, pp. 528-534. doi: 10.4236/pp.2013.47076.

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